Skin color is decided by autosomal DNA

MC1R intronless gene encodes the receptor protein for melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). The encoded protein, a seven pass transmembrane G protein coupled receptor, controls melanogenesis. Two types of melanin exist: red pheomelanin and black eumelanin. Gene mutations that lead to a loss in function are associated with increased pheomelanin production, which leads to lighter skin and hair color.

The MC1R gene provides instructions for making a protein called the melanocortin 1 receptor. This receptor plays an important role in normal pigmentation. The receptor is primarily located on the surface of melanocytes, which are specialized cells that produce a pigment called melanin. Melanin is the substance that gives skin, hair, and eyes their color. Melanin is also found in the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (the retina), where it plays a role in normal vision.

Ethnicity

So, here’s the question posed by people trying to understand their ethnicity.

If I have 3% Melanesian (or Middle Eastern, Indo-Tibetan or fill-in-the blank ethnicity), doesn’t that mean that one of my great-great-great-grandparents was Melanesian?

There are really two answers to this question.  (I can hear you groaning!!!)

If the amount is 25% (for example) and not very small amounts, then the answer would be yes, that is very likely what this is telling you.  Or maybe it’s telling you that you have two different great-grandparents who have 12.5 each – but those relatives are fairly close in time due to the amount of DNA that came from that region.  See, that was easy.

However, the answer changes when we’re down in the very small percentages, below 5%, often in the 1 and 2% range.  This answer isn’t nearly as straightforward.

Read More

MC1R gene

MC1R melanocortin 1 receptor [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Autosomal DNA, Ancient Ancestors, Ethnicity and the Dandelion

J2aL25

Introduction

The Jewish branches can be grouped according to their Y-DNA characteristics. These characteristics are often related to a period between 10000ybp-4000ybp. Some branches had a founding father effect in that period outside the Middle East which gives information on the location of their ancestor at the time of the founding father. For other branches it is more likely that the ancestors were in the Middle East, where, in most cases, no founding father effect took place and population growth was continuous. An overview of the Jewish groups of branches is present.

Characteristics

The J2a lines are mostly long narrow lines. The two L70 are part of L25. These branches are present in the region from Saudi Arabia to North Middle East to the Mediterranean. The M92 have very low percentages in Arabian countries, but larger in the north of the Middle East. M319 is an old line in the Middle East.

The largest amount of information on J2 is found on J2-M172 Haplogroup Research.

A tree with time estimates is found on yfull.

The groups below are grouped in older branches (the indicated times are the best estimated branchsplits according to yfull):

  • M410 (18300 ybp)
    • L26 (16400 ybp)
      • L25 (9200 ybp)
        • L70 (5300 ybp)
      • M319 (12400 ybp)
      • L210 (4800 ybp)
      • M92 (8100 ybp)

Ashkenazim on the Silk Road


world, and this valuable information was placed at the disposal of the Iranian rulers (and perhaps anyone who demanded it). The Jews of Iran wrote the book on capital and government and were determined to expand and strengthen their global trading network in the only possible way – conversion of populations along the Silk Road

Eran Elhayek – Lecturer in Population Genetics at the University of Sheffield, England

In the middle of the sixth century CE, the Ghanan hanaes of Central Asia were founded by the Hashina tribe that included Western China, Mongolia, Kazakhstan and southern Russia. Hashina was a tribe of semi-nomads of Iranian origin who were found to have great organizational talent. They united the local Iranian-Siberian tribes and created a Turkish confederation that challenged local forces. But the world is not strong, the Ogurs – another Turkish group – defeated the hanaes of Hashina and pushed them westward, giving them a second chance to start over. Hashina was quick to exploit the capabilities of their organization and their military talents and together with the local tribes established the Khazari Hanan. Hashina brought with them a shamanic religion, various languages ​​and customs, and a genetic fingerprint that testified to their Siberian origin and was foreign to the Caucasus and Europe. This DNA imprint is known as the Q-group on the Y chromosome. To date, about 2,000 ancient skeletons from around the world dating back to the last 15,000 years have been paved and only the populations of North Asia and America carry the Q group.

The Confederate Confederation carefully followed the instructions of the guide: “Building an Empire for Beginners, They Promised Religious Freedom, Respected Local Traditions, and in return gave Security and Possibilities of Livelihood and Trade, and soon became a powerful empire that cast a shadow over both the Roman-Byzantine Empire and the Caliphate Some of them still feel the terror of a Muslim, because, unlike other groups that took place at the dawn of history and disappeared without their name being known, the Khazars accepted the religion of the Jews and became the last tribes in the world to voluntarily accept Judaism.

A map showing the trade network of the Redhans - the Jewish merchants' guild, 870 CE, as evidenced by the impressions of Ibn Khuraddaba in the Book of the Roads and the Kingdoms.  From Wikipedia
A map showing the trade network of the Redhans – the Jewish merchants’ guild, 870 CE, as evidenced by the impressions of Ibn Khuraddaba in the Book of the Roads and the Kingdoms. From Wikipedia

It turns out that the unification of the North Caucasian tribes who spoke a mixture of languages ​​and believed in different beliefs was a relatively simple matter. The wise wishers quickly realized that their strategic position dominating the Silk Road came with significant revenue potential, but also with religious neighbors who were very jealous. It is hard to imagine that the police did not hear about the Jews. At the same time, the weight of the Jewish world was in Iran. The origin of the Jewish settlement in Mesopotamia was the offspring of the Assyrian Exile and the Babylonian exile of the elites of religion and government, to which the Jews of Khadib were added from the Assyrian kingdom. These Jews received courteous treatment from the authorities who granted them freedom of culture and religion. The assimilation not long in coming included the adoption of names, language and of course many of the local religious practices. The DNA of the Jews of Iraq and Iran looks exactly like the DNA of the locals. The Persian Empire that conquered Babylon continued its tolerant attitude toward the Jews, who, over time, became allies of the Iranian regime thanks to their great loyalty, success, and intermarriage. In this sense, Raleed Kushner (son-in-law of President Donald Trump) and Mark Mazewinsky (husband of Chelsea Clinton) did not discover America. In exchange, the Iranian government gave them a monopoly on trade that greatly enriched them. The Jews plowed the silk roads and reached China. In order to preserve their monopoly, they invented secret languages ​​that included a mixture of Aramaic, Hebrew, Persian and invented words. In my opinion, the goods that the Jews transported (slaves, women, sheep, silk, and honey) fell in value from the immaterial goods that the Jews transmitted through secret languages ​​and cultural codes – information. The Jews were Google, Facebook and Twitter of the ancient world and this valuable information was placed at the disposal of the Iranian rulers (and perhaps all who demand it). The Jews of Iran wrote the book on capital and government and were determined to expand and strengthen their global trading network in the only possible way – conversion of populations along the Silk Road. The Jews plowed the silk roads and reached China. In order to preserve their monopoly, they invented secret languages ​​that included a mixture of Aramaic, Hebrew, Persian and invented words. In my opinion, the goods that the Jews transported (slaves, women, sheep, silk, and honey) fell in value from the immaterial goods that the Jews transmitted through secret languages ​​and cultural codes – information. The Jews were Google, Facebook and Twitter of the ancient world and this valuable information was placed at the disposal of the Iranian rulers (and perhaps all who demand it). The Jews of Iran wrote the book on capital and government and were determined to expand and strengthen their global trading network in the only possible way – conversion of populations along the Silk Road. The Jews plowed the silk roads and reached China. In order to preserve their monopoly, they invented secret languages ​​that included a mixture of Aramaic, Hebrew, Persian and invented words. In my opinion, the goods that the Jews transported (slaves, women, sheep, silk, and honey) fell in value from the immaterial goods that the Jews transmitted through secret languages ​​and cultural codes – information. The Jews were Google, Facebook and Twitter of the ancient world and this valuable information was placed at the disposal of the Iranian rulers (and perhaps all who demand it). The Jews of Iran wrote the book on capital and government and were determined to expand and strengthen their global trading network in the only possible way – conversion of populations along the Silk Road. Facebook and Twitter of the ancient world and this valuable information are placed at the disposal of the Iranian rulers (and perhaps anyone who asks). The Jews of Iran wrote the book on capital and government and were determined to expand and strengthen their global trading network in the only possible way – conversion of populations along the Silk Road. Facebook and Twitter of the ancient world and this valuable information are placed at the disposal of the Iranian rulers (and perhaps anyone who asks). The Jews of Iran wrote the book on capital and government and were determined to expand and strengthen their global trading network in the only possible way – conversion of populations along the Silk Road.

At that time, the Greeks, Slavs, Greeks, and Slavs lived in the southern Black Sea, as much as commercial and religious curiosity. Already in the early centuries, these populations embraced Judaism. They translated the Bible into Greek, established synagogues and continued to develop the trade network, despite the fact that the Jews of Asia remained transparent in terms of the Talmudic rabbinate, first because they were far from Babylon and Jerusalem, and the rabbis were not historians and saw no need to document Jewish communities. And the third was because Judaism was a particularly peculiar mutation in which Jewish relations with the Roman government were normal, women served in synagogues and as community leaders, and worst of all, this Judaism rejected circumcision and broke one of the most important economic engines of Orthodox Judaism In this sense, the Jews of Asia Tena were pre-Reform. Despite differences of opinion, no religious authority doubted kashrut their money. The Jews of Asia Minor contributed generously to Herod’s temple and even to subsequent yeshivas. At some point these Jews adopted the name Ashkenaz. The choice of the name was not accidental, the region where they lived was known as the homeland of Ashkenaz, Noah’s great-grandson. The neighbors to the north – the Scythians – were called Aramaic Ashgouza and Ashkenazi Hebrew. The DNA signature of today’s Ashkenazim was created in the northeast of Turkey at the intersection of ancient trade routes between four ancient villages whose names were derived from the word Ashkenaz, a place I called “Ashkenaz” Old City “since this is the only place in the world that bears references derived from the word” Ashkenaz “. And you will receive a distinguished dynasty that is better not to deal with. The DNA signature of the modern Ashkenazim was created in northeast Turkey at the intersection of ancient trade routes between four ancient villages whose names were derived from the word Ashkenaz, a place I called Old Ashkenaz, since this is the only place in the world that bears references derived from the word “Ashkenaz”. And you will receive a distinguished dynasty that is better not to deal with. The DNA signature of the modern Ashkenazim was created in northeast Turkey at the intersection of ancient trade routes between four ancient villages whose names were derived from the word Ashkenaz, a place I called Old Ashkenaz, since this is the only place in the world that bears references derived from the word “Ashkenaz”.

The Ashkenazim enthusiastically adopted anti-rabbinic Judaism, which included refraining from eating pork, avoiding worship of idols, and observing the Sabbath. The Ashkenazim expanded the all-Jewish trade network to central and western Europe and some of the merchants began to settle there. The Ashkenazim also expanded northward, and when they reached Kazaria they were disappointed to find that the Khazars’ political intuition fell far short of their economic outlook. Capitalism was foreign to the Khazars (Karl Marx called European Jews pre-capitalist) and they were not ashamed to admit it. In the eighth century the Khazars adopted non-rabbinic Judaism and turned it into state religion. It was not a mistake. The Khazars became so rich that it was said that the silver coins had run out of the Roman Empire. It is difficult to determine the extent to which the tribes that were under the Khazars accepted Judaism. The peoples living today within the boundaries of the historical arena are not the ones who lived there in the past, but it is to be hoped that studies in ancient DNA will answer this question. Judaism adopted many Slavic customs, such as breaking a glass at a wedding and placing stones on graves. At that time Slavic Yiddish began to develop in a mixture of Irish, Turkish, Aramaic, Greek and Slavic languages ​​as a secret language for the Jews of Eastern Europe. Alongside Iranian Yiddish and Turkish Yiddish, which were annihilated on a different side of the world. Jewish kazaris also began to strike roots in the Balkans and Eastern Europe.

At the end of the ninth century the Jewish empire began to crumble. First, because the Khazars stood before three defeated armies (the Russians, the Muslims, and the Mongols) who struck them from every direction and were joined by the Black Death. Second, because both the Khazars and the Ashkenazim failed to develop an industry with the wealth they accumulated. The money did not seep down and military inventions that could change the campaign like gunpowder were not used to achieve military advantage. With the disintegration of the empire began the massive penetration of the Jews to Europe, the East through Ukraine and south through Italy. The DNA of the Jews of Rome looks like the DNA of Greco-Greeks and attests to their pagan past. In the fall of the Jewish kingdom between the 12th and 10th centuries, the all-Jewish trade network collapsed, the East parted from the West and the Jewish Facebook bank went bankrupt. The Jews of Iran and Ashkenaz met again only after a thousand years of loneliness. Yiddish was no longer a secret language but was the main language of the Jews of Europe, However, because of the proximity to the German tribes, she annexed many German words while maintaining the Slavic grammar and was given the unflattering nickname “Broken German.” The monopoly on trade was now occupied by the Italians, the Dutch, the Danes, and the Jews were pushed into less lucrative trades. When they adopted surnames in the 17th and 18th centuries, the Jews of the Zeira preserved their Khazar heritage and the Khazars’ memories of the surnames of Cohen, Kahan and their derivatives. The Y chromosome origin of some of the Levites is from Asia Minor. One might assume that these were descendants of the pagan sorcerers who continued to serve in the sacred. The DNA of the priests and the Levites is also found in ancient Ashkenaz. The origin of the mitochondria (inherited through the mother) of the Ashkenazim is in the peoples of Europe and not in the Levant. When they adopted surnames in the 17th and 18th centuries, the Jews of the Zeira preserved their Khazar heritage and the Khazars’ memories of the surnames of Cohen, Kahan and their derivatives. The Y chromosome origin of some of the Levites is from Asia Minor. One might assume that these were descendants of the pagan sorcerers who continued to serve in the sacred. The DNA of the priests and the Levites is also found in ancient Ashkenaz. The origin of the mitochondria (inherited through the mother) of the Ashkenazim is in the peoples of Europe and not in the Levant. When they adopted surnames in the 17th and 18th centuries, the Jews of the Zeira preserved their Khazar heritage and the Khazars’ memories of the surnames of Cohen, Kahan and their derivatives. The Y chromosome origin of some of the Levites is from Asia Minor. One might assume that these were descendants of the pagan sorcerers who continued to serve in the sacred. The DNA of the priests and the Levites is also found in ancient Ashkenaz. The origin of the mitochondria (inherited through the mother) of the Ashkenazim is in the peoples of Europe and not in the Levant.

A memorial plaque to a Vilna Gaon near the site of the synagogue where he worked.  Photo: Avi Belizovsky
A memorial plaque to a Vilna Gaon near the site of the synagogue where he worked. Photo: Avi Belizovsky
Map of the Kingdom of the Khazars.  From Wikipedia
Map of the Kingdom of the Khazars. From Wikipedia

Hashina and the other Khazar tribes that carried the Q group on their Y chromosome were assimilated into Ashkenazim and constituted at least 4% of this group. A stroll through family trees of key figures in European Jewry, such as the Vilna Ga’on and the banking family Oppenheim shows that the affair continued to hold key positions in the public and in commerce, and recently reminded Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu that he was one of the descendants of the Gaon of Vilna.

Comparing the Ashkenazi genus to ancient genomes from the Middle East confirms their Central Asian past. The ancient Levantine element in the Ashkenazi genus is about 3%, the same percentage as the average European shared with Neanderthals. The Ashkenazi genome is mostly Iranian and a minority European. The Levantine component is dominant among the Bedouin (68%) and the Palestinians (58%). It seems that genetic studies will never be able to determine whether the Palestinians are descendants of the Jews for the simple reason that there is no reason to assume that the Jews were genetically different from the Canaanites. However, I agree with Shlomo Zand’s conclusion that the Jews converted to Islam in order to evade the payment of the tax, and without a doubt the anger of the extremists who consumed the 600 years between the destruction of Herod’s temple and the Arab conquest in futile rebellions. As long as the DNA of the Jews has not been paved, the genetic research in the field is incomplete and the true chapter in the story is still open. By then, the Levant people will continue to dance at the longest masquerade ball in the world.

https://www.hayadan.org.il/origin-of-ashkenzim-1910184

The Silk Road Leads to Queens

At Shalom, a Bukharian restaurant in Rego Park, Queens, the cook, Tolik, makes meat and onion samsi in a tandoor
By JULIA MOSKIN
Published: January 18, 2006
http://www.nytimes.com/2006/01/18/di…icle_popular_2

SUNDAY is family night out in Rego Park, Queens. All 10 tables at Restaurant Salute are crowded with pots of green tea, platters of golden French fries showered with chopped garlic and parsley, and piles of Uzbek plov, a cumin-scented pilaf of rice, carrots and chickpeas.

In the kitchen at Shalom, lamb rib kebabs sizzle over a live charcoal fire, helped along by a hair dryer slung near the grill that blasts up flames to sear the meat; the cook, Tolik, spins a piece of dough into one unthinkably long noodle, his arms a blur as he stretches it round and round like string for a huge game of cat’s cradle. 

At 10 p.m. waitresses at Cheburechnaya are still running between the kitchen and the dining room. Snatches of Russian, Hebrew, Uzbek, Farsi and Tajik can be heard, and babies are passed from lap to lap, bottles of Smirnoff from table to table. 

“I have been making chebureks since I was 14 years old,” said Isak Sionov, an owner of the restaurant, referring to the savory deep-fried pies that are its signature. “First in the Soviet Union, then in Uzbekistan, then in Israel, and now in Rego Park.” 

In Queens’s Central Asian restaurants, you can read history in the tea leaves. 

The geopolitical upheavals of the 20th century sent tens of thousands of people to New York from the former Soviet republics of Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as Afghanistan and western China. Separated from Russia by the vast Kazakhstan steppe, straddled by mountains that stretch from Afghanistan’s Hindu Kush, all the way to China and the Himalayas, the region is home to the Silk Road cities of Samarkand, Tashkent, Dushanbe and Bukhara. 

Its mountains cross national boundaries, and so do its dishes. Fresh noodles and lamb kebabs, cilantro and garlic sauces and spiced rice pilafs are home cooking for many of these new New Yorkers.

For more than 2,000 years, Central Asia was home to the Bukharians, one of the most isolated Jewish communities in the world, who evolved a unique language, blending Farsi and Hebrew, that scholars call Judeo-Persian and locals call Bukhori. According to the Research Institute for New Americans, about 40,000 Bukharian Jews have settled in New York since the collapse of the Soviet Union. 

The Bukharians established a thriving commercial strip along 108th Street in Rego Park, now called Bukharian Broadway, and opened several kosher restaurants that serve their traditional cooking, based on charcoal, lamb, rice, beets, potatoes, carrots and spices like cumin, paprika and chili.

Reflecting the influence of silk and spice trades, there are tastes of China and India everywhere. Every Bukharian menu offers a garlicky, chili-spiked Korean carrot salad, morkovcha koreyska, that is a legacy of Stalin’s mass deportations of ethnic Koreans from the far eastern Soviet Union to its western frontiers. At Tandoori Bukharian Bakery in Rego Park, a samsa – one of Asia’s many cousins of the Indian samosa – is deliciously spiked with cumin and baked against the walls of a clay-lined oven that Bukharians, like Indians, call a tandoor. 

It is all a long way from bagels and lox.

Neither Ashkenazi nor Sephardi (the two major groups of Diaspora Jews), the Bukharians say that their lineage goes directly back to the Babylonian captivity, before 500 B.C. “Our people are the ones who did not return to Jerusalem afterward, but remained in Asia,” said Peter Pinkhasov, a paralegal at a Manhattan law firm who immigrated with his family from Tashkent in 1993. 

The Bukharians’ Jewish identity was always preserved in the kitchen. “Even though we were in exile from Jerusalem, we observed kashruth,” said Isak Masturov, another owner of Cheburechnaya. “We could not go to restaurants, so we had to learn to cook for our own community. My great-grandmother, Sarah Masturov, said that every woman should know how to cook for at least 500 people.” 

Every Bukharian Sabbath, whether in Forest Hills or Tel Aviv, is greeted with a dish of fried fish covered with a pounded sauce of garlic and cilantro. “We had the most wonderful fresh lake fish in Dushanbe,” Ledya Moses, an owner of Salute, said. 

A spirit of abundance pervades Bukharian restaurants. Kebabs of pure lamb fat, crisp and smoky, perfume every dining room. Platters of plov are enormous. And warm chewy bread called lepeshka, like a huge bialy, keeps coming until you say stop. A few doors down at Fortuna restaurant, the owner, Isak Babayev, mourns the barberries, the sweet yellow carrots, the pomegranates and the fresh walnuts of his native Uzbekistan. “Everything was organic, although we didn’t know that word,” he said in Russian. “There were the most wonderful red- and yellow-fleshed melons, and green grapes as long and thin as a woman’s fingers.” 

In two decades, more than 90 percent of the 120,000 Bukharians have left Central Asia for Israel or the United States, said Dr. Sam Kliger of the Research Institute for New Americans. New York’s Bukharian community, about 15 percent of the Russian-speaking Jews in the city, first followed the Russians to Brighton Beach in Brooklyn, said Solomon Moses, an owner of Salute. “But even though we all speak Russian, our customs are different, our religion is different, and our food is different,” he added. 

Rego Park (now sometimes called Regostan) and Forest Hills became home to the Bukharians, most of whom observe an orthodox form of Judaism. The Bukharian restaurants close well before dark on Friday and do not reopen until at least an hour after sundown on Saturday. “We Bukharians are good at preserving traditions,” said Gulya Katayeva, a hairdresser who was a customer at Cheburechnaya last week, “and we like our own cooking.” Her two teenage children nodded agreement, and her son, Solomon, 14, proceeded to explain the finer points of composing baksh, a Sabbath dish of rice and herbs that takes four hours to cook. 

This is not a wildly varied cuisine, but its kebabs, stews, noodles and dumplings are savory and satisfying. A traditional Central Asian restaurant is little more than a stop for merchants and shepherds traveling the difficult road over the Pamir peaks; the ancient Persians called the region the roof of the world. These restaurants, called chai khanas, or tea houses, provided travelers in the most remote settlements with a place to warm themselves with pots of green tea, and, if they were lucky, to find staples like rice, lamb, carrots, herbs and onions. “We drink green tea all day and all night, when we are sick and when we are healthy,” said Arthur Rubinov, an owner of Tandoori. 

Dishes that define the region include lamb kebabs; shurpa, which might be a hearty vegetable-beef soup spiked with cumin or a thin lamb broth; and rice pilaf, whether chunky plov or one of the luxurious pilafs that adorn traditional Afghan banquets. 

At Bahar in Elmhurst, the best Afghan restaurant I have found in New York, the naranj pilaf is a rich, glowing orange color, thickly larded with shreds of orange peel, soft almonds and pistachios. Zamarat pilaf, which means “emerald,” is infused with spinach and cilantro. “Rice is the first thing we eat, and the most important,” said an owner, Huma Lewal, who came to New York from Kabul in 1992. “And the crust on the bottom of the rice pot, the ta-di-qi, is always given to the oldest and most respected person in the room.” 

Farther north, bread and flour take over – especially lagman, hand-pulled noodles whose name evolved from the Chinese lo mein. Very popular among the Bukharians, lagman have been mastered by another Central Asian group, the Uighurs, who have a small community in New York. Their traditional home is the area around Kashgar, a legendary Silk Road bazaar that is now the remote Chinese city of Kashi, not far from China’s border with Kyrgyzstan.

Spinning dough at Shalom.
Cafe Kashkar, in Brighton Beach, holds the distinction of being the best Uighur restaurant in New York (there is at least one other). “Uighurs are not Chinese, not Russian, not Uzbek, not Kyrgyz,” an owner, Temur Yazova, said in Russian. “We are Asiatskie – Asian.” Uighurs are Muslim, and speak a language derived from Turkish; many say that persecution by the Chinese government has forced them out of China, finding their way to New York via Tashkent and Dushanbe.

Certainly the food at Cafe Kashkar is closer to Istanbul’s than to Beijing’s. Ms. Yazova’s menu is mostly dedicated to handmade lagman and dumplings – boiled, steamed, served in soup or even stir-fried and topped with a rich stew of beef and red peppers topped with parsley to make a dish called goiro lagman. “Everyone knows that females are the best at making lagman,” she said. Her manti, steamed meat dumplings, are served in clear soup, sprinkled with parsley, and as delicate as fine wontons; to ward off blandness, every table holds a vial of spicy vinegar infused with chilies, peppers and peppery celery leaves. “We call it ug-sauce,” Sher Mekhmonov, the waiter, said. 

Dumplings, samsi and their close relative, fried meat pies, are the favorite street food of Central Asians. At Bahar, the large, flat, crisp bolani, especially ones stuffed with a jammy pumpkin conserve, are superb. And at Cheburechnaya, Mr. Sionov tries to remind his rapidly gentrifying customers that chebureks are best eaten with two hands, not a knife and fork. “The juice runs out on the plate if you cut it,” he said. “And if it is not juicy, it is not cheburek.”

Genetic citizenship: DNA testing and the Israeli Law of Return

The Israeli State recently announced that it may begin to use genetic tests to determine whether potential immigrants are Jewish or not. This development would demand a rethinking of Israeli law on the issue of the definition of Jewishness. In this article, we discuss the historical and legal context of secular and religious definitions of Jewishness and rights to immigration in the State of Israel. We give a brief overview of different ways in which genes have been regarded as Jewish, and we discuss the relationship between this new use of genetics and the society with which it is co-produced. In conclusion, we raise several questions about future potential impacts of Jewish genetics on Israeli law and society.

https://academic.oup.com/jlb/article/2/2/469/826237/Genetic-citizenship-DNA-testing-and-the-Israeli

Can DNA Testing Tell Me If I am Jewish?

Both the Maternal DNA Test (mothers ancestry) and Paternal DNA Test (fathers ancestry) show your genetic family line, where in the world your genetic ancestors lived and if these areas were common to Jewish populations.Most Jewish populations lived in a few specific areas of the world. If your genetic line comes from one of these areas then it indicates your genetic family line could be Jewish. In addition, both tests come with access to Jewish comparative databases which contain records for Ashkenazim and Sephardim, as well as Levites and Cohanim.However, nothing in your DNA can tell you if you belong to the Jewish, or any other belief system. The reason is that a belief system does not come from your DNA, a belief is something that a person chooses to believe in that is outside of themselves and not from themselves.For example, if a child was born to “Jewish” parents but was never told they where “Jewish” their DNA code would be the same but they would not have the “Jewish” belief system.Taking this one step further they could then choose to believe in another belief system or in nothing at all. In all cases the underlying DNA code remains the same.

Ancestry Testing For Jewish Roots in Detail

Around 170,000 years ago the DNA codes of each human were very similar, something that can be shown in the DNA code of any individual in the world. As the human race chose to separate further, migrating around the world in an effort to create a “better” life this further separation created more separations/variations in the DNA code of each person.An ancestry DNA test today can show where your genetic ancestors lived by identifying how many steps of separation have been taken (how much the DNA code has changed). The more steps, the more specific the test results can be, for example, stating that your ancestry was from Northern Ireland. The fewer steps of separation the wider the area of ancestry, such as Western Europe. Each combination of steps created its own DNA pattern. Individuals who chose to believe in the Jewish religion originally stayed in one area of the world, this area has its own unique DNA pattern.But NOT all people living in that area chose to be Jewish.Therefore a DNA test can present where your genetic ancestors lived and if they were from an area common to Jewish populations but it is impossible to identify what type of belief system they chose to belong to because a belief does not come from you or your DNA but from something outside of you.
Using state of the art DNA testing, we are launching the world’s most advanced ancestry DNA test. To find out more information and register your interest, please visit: www.livingdna.com