Ashkenazic Jews’ mysterious origins unravelled

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The rise of the Ashina

We now know that at the time these Jews adopted the name Ashkenaz, they also acquired uniqueAsian mutationson their Y chromosome. This is where another important group of people in our story come into play – and they are called the Gok-Turks.

During thesixth century , these nomadic people were ruled by a Siberian Turkic tribe called the Ashina. They were forced by theChinese Tang Empire– who were in power in China at the time – to migrate westwards toward the Black Sea.

Thanks to their organisational and military skills, the Ashina united many tribes in this area – and a new empire called the ‘Khazar Khaganate’ was born. Offering freedom of worship and taxing trade, these people quickly rose to power.

Orthodox Jews pray at the ancient cemetery of Safed, Israel.
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The Asian group of these DNA mutations , found in Ashkenazic Jews, likely originated fromthe Ashinaelite and other Khazar clans, who converted from Shamanism to Judaism. This means that the Ashina and core Khazar clans were absorbed by the Ashkenazic Jews.

It was also around this time that the Jewish elite adopted many Slavic customs. And based on my previous research, I would suggest thatYiddish was developed as a secret languageto assist in trade.

10 genomes from the Xinjiang region

The first 10 genomes from the Xinjiang region (northwestern China) were published. As you know, this is one of the homelands of the Khazars (at least according to P. Goldan).

The first 10 genomes from the Xinjiang region (northwestern China) were published. As you know, this is one of the homelands of the Khazars (at least according to P. Goldan). The collapse of three nomadic polities that formed the steppe lands of north China resulted in migration to Siberia and from there to the much more hospitable Caucasus. The Y haplogroups include Q1a1b, Q1a1a1, and R1b1a1a2.

Bukhara Jews – one of the oldest Jewish communities

During the times of the Soviet Union, a rather large Jewish diaspora lived in its Central Asian republics. However, Jews appeared there long before the appearance of the USSR, even earlier than the Russian Empire came. The people of this nationality are mainly representatives of one of the oldest ethnographic groups of this nation – the Bukhara Jews. This community was formed over 2 thousand years ago and for a long time led a separate existence from its European and North African compatriots. With the arrival of the Russian empire in Turkestan, the community of Bukharan Jews was supplemented by representatives of the Ashkenazi branch, but their number was insignificant, so they practically did not affect the established life principles of the Bukharians.

Appearance

The moment of the emergence of this branch so far causes debate. The myth of the Jewish ancestors, who were forcibly evicted by the Assyrians from the kingdom of Israel in 722 BC, is quite popular. er Even the termination area is called Khador, which the Bukharians identify as Bukhara. True, historians have questioned this version, putting forward their own point of view about the terrain in Northern Mesopotamia, which is now in Iraqi territory.

Resettlement

From Hador, the Jewish diaspora began to spread across the lands of the Assyrian state, which at that time was perhaps the largest in the world. A certain percentage of them migrated to the lands of present-day Iran, to Khuzestan (south-west of the Islamic Republic) and Media (north of the country, now Iranian Azerbaijan). This is supported by the fact that the mountain Jews living in the Caucasus are descended from the Khador Jews. Such a settlement had its reasons. They are mainly due to economic, political and social factors, but one more thing should not be disregarded. Jews were involved in military service in favor of the states that had controlled Israel for a certain period. When the Persian kings of the Achaemenid family came to power, the era of the most massive settlement of Jews, who had snuck into Central Asia, came.

This is supported by a number of testimonies. Fragments of pottery with Hebrew inscriptions were found by archaeologists near the Turkmen cities of Bairam-Ali and Merv in the mid-1950s, but most importantly, remains of an ancient synagogue were found. All discoveries belonged to the II. BC er – I in. n er The advancement of the Great Silk Road, through which Jewish merchants penetrated into the very depths of Central Asia, and then advanced in the direction of China all the way to the Pacific coast, contributed to the advancement of this nation to the east. An additional factor in their advancement into Central Asia was the consequences of the Judean Wars of 66-70, 132-135. A significant part of the population was forced to leave Judea and Jerusalem in order to avoid slavery. Thus, large Jewish communities appeared in Balkh, Merv and Termez.

Flourishing

Until the Arabs invaded Central Asia this region was inhabited by a multitude of Until the Arabs invaded Central Asia, this region was inhabited by a multitude of peoples, often belonging to various religious movements. Here Buddhism and Hinduism, Christianity and Judaism, Zoroastrianism, and various syncretic cults freely lived together. The situation changed with the arrival of Islam here, but the Jews were able to adapt to this state of affairs. Their incredible performance and education allowed them to occupy extremely honorable positions in the local community. For example, Sagl Al-Tabari, who was born in Tabaristan in the 800s, became famous as a mathematician and doctor. By his efforts in Arabic, the work “Almagest” of the famous astronomer Ptolemy was translated from Greek. Representatives of the Turkic dynasty of Ghaznavids, who ruled in the X-XI centuries, entrusted the Jews with the leadership of the Balkh and Khorasan mines. High positions were occupied by Jewish representatives in the Tajik Samanid dynasty in the tenth century, as well as among the Khorezmshahs in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. By this time, the number of people of this nation in Central Asia has reached the maximum number, and the culture – its truly “golden age”.

The appearance of the Bukhara-Jewish dialect

For a long time, living among the Iranian-speaking peoples, the Bukhara Jews had no choice but to join the Farsi language. Moving further to Central Asia, they saved it. This circumstance was helped by the fact that the Tajik language of the new regions was not too different from Persian. Gradually, he became a dialect, which began to be called Bukhara. The beginning of the existence of the Bukhara-Hebrew language is considered to be the X-XI century, and the writer Mawlana Shahin is recognized as its initiator. However, the Jews did not accept the Arabic script, continuing to use Jewish writing.

Decay

The turning point in the history of Bukharan Jews was the beginning of the thirteenth century. The Mongols, ruthlessly exterminating the Jews, moved to Central Asia. Only in the cities of Balkh, Merv, Khorezm managed to survive small groups of people of this nationality. The community living in Bukhara was relatively untouched, where the Jews who survived the war events reached. The decline of the Bukhara-Jewish culture lasted for 500 years, ending only in the XVIII century.

Development in new conditions

At the end of the 18th century, the negative situation with the Jewish population in Central Asia began to change for the better. This process was facilitated by a high birth rate in families, as well as a significant flow of immigrants who came from Afghanistan, Iran, Turkey and even Yemen. In addition, Spanish Sephardic Jews, who fled to Islamic countries after being expelled from their homeland in 1492, arrived here. A new period of life began for the Bukharan Jews after the arrival of the Russian Empire in the Central Asian region. In order to create gentle pressure on the leadership of the Bukhara Emirate the Russian government issued a series of official decrees that of the Bukhara Emirate, the Russian government issued a series of official decrees that gave the Bukhara Jews considerable privileges in their activities on the territory of the empire. Interestingly, such Russian liberties were not granted to indigenous Russian Jews. So, through Bukhara Jews, the flow of goods from Bukhara went unhindered into the country, which in the long run had a positive significance in relations between the empire and the emirate.

By the middle of the XIX century, Jewish communities settled in almost every major Central Asian city. The largest of them, occupying two quarters, was located in Bukhara. The next in size was the Samarkand community, living in the Mahallan Yahudien quarter. Very quickly, modern civilization trends have penetrated into the Jewish environment. Representatives of this nation very quickly switched to wearing European clothes and using goods manufactured in England and Russia. And although officially the Bukhara Emirate was not yet joined to Russia, local Jews, who joined the merchant guild, could receive Russian citizenship. This decision allowed the empire to get a large number of wealthy dynasties, which played a positive role in the development of the country. Having serious means, they developed economy, creating the finished production cycles. For example, the Vadyaev dynasty in 1916 acquired the Ivanovo-Voznesensk manufactory, thereby completing the creation of a huge combine producing textiles. Cotton plantations of the Fergana Valley, railways, factories for the cleaning of raw cotton and the manufacture of textile products were included in the single complex. Tens of thousands of people were involved in the production process. With the final accession of the Bukhara Emirate to Russia, the living conditions of local

At the end of the 18th century, the negative situation with the Jewish population in Central Asia began to change for the better. This process was facilitated by a high birth rate in families, as well as a significant flow of immigrants who came from Afghanistan, Iran, Turkey and even Yemen. In addition, Spanish Sephardic Jews, who fled to Islamic countries after being expelled from their homeland in 1492, arrived here. A new period of life began for the Bukharan Jews after the arrival of the Russian Empire in the Central Asian region. In order to create gentle pressure on the leadership of the Bukhara Emirate the Russian government issued a series of official decrees that of the Bukhara Emirate, the Russian government issued a series of official decrees that gave the Bukhara Jews considerable privileges in their activities on the territory of the empire. Interestingly, such Russian liberties were not granted to indigenous Russian Jews. So, through Bukhara Jews, the flow of goods from Bukhara went unhindered into the country, which in the long run had a positive significance in relations between the empire and the emirate. By the middle of the XIX century, Jewish communities settled in almost every major Central Asian city. The largest of them, occupying two quarters, was located in Bukhara. The next in size was the Samarkand community, living in the Mahallan Yahudien quarter. Very quickly, modern civilization trends have penetrated into the Jewish environment. Representatives of this nation very quickly switched to wearing European clothes and using goods manufactured in England and Russia. And although officially the Bukhara Emirate was not yet joined to Russia, local Jews, who joined the merchant guild, could receive Russian citizenship. This decision allowed the empire to get a large number of wealthy dynasties, which played a positive role in the development of the country. Having serious means, they developed economy, creating the finished production cycles. For example, the Vadyaev dynasty in 1916 acquired the Ivanovo-Voznesensk manufactory, thereby completing the creation of a huge combine producing textiles. Cotton plantations of the Fergana Valley, railways, factories for the cleaning of raw cotton and the manufacture of textile products were included in the single complex. Tens of thousands of people were involved in the production process. With the final accession of the Bukhara Emirate to Russia, the living conditions of local Jews have seriously changed. European and Russian culture began to penetrate here, Russian Ashkenazi Jews reached out. The latter led to the Russification of local surnames. The national intelligentsia began to emerge, defending the interests of its own people. Russian was gradually becoming the spoken language, although the Bukhara dialect did not go anywhere. This is confirmed by the fact of publication in Skobelev (now Fergana) in the first half of the 1910s of the Bukhara-Jewish newspaper called “Rakhamim”.

Soviet period

After the fall of Russian tsarism in 1917, the new leadership of the country paid close attention to the Bukhara-Jewish diaspora. A number of secondary and higher educational institutions were opened for its representatives in the 1920s in Tashkent, Kokand, Samarkand. The Tashkent Institute of Education, created thanks to the efforts of Rakhmin Badalov, who later became its director, became the most famous. Interestingly, the Bukhara Jews, considered to be a national minority, could study for free in universities. The means of communication were not forgotten. Already in the 1920s, newspapers and magazines designed specifically for Bukharian Jews were mass-published in the region. True, the Jewish graphics replaced the Cyrillic alphabet.

Highly educated Bukhara Jews were actively involved in management work and service in military structures. In the Government of the Tajik SSR were Bukharians. One of them, Ilya Leviev, worked as secretary of the Supreme Council of the Republic. A representative of the diaspora Zina Kuraeva in the late 1930s was even elected deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. The army was practically no kind of troops, in which the Bukhara Jews would not serve. During the Great Patriotic War, up to 30,000 Bukharians left to defend the country. About a third lay down on the battlefield. Representatives of this diaspora made a great contribution to the economic and cultural development of the country in the postwar period. Professionals who developed the agricultural industry, the oil and gas industry, who made a significant contribution to the construction of Central Asian irrigation facilities, emerged from their midst. From among the Bukhara Jews came a whole galaxy of wonderful actors, musicians, poets, journalists, artists, athletes. The well-known kinodilogiyu “The exploits of Rustam”,
created based on the Persian-Tajik epic “Shah-name”, was shot by the Bukharan Jew
Bension Kimyagarov.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union into separate republics, most of the Bukharan Jews went to Israel.

Author: Marina Slivina

Ancient DNA sheds light on the genetic origins of early Iron Age Philistines

The ancient Mediterranean port city of Ashkelon, identified as “Philistine” during the Iron Age, underwent a marked cultural change between the Late Bronze and the early Iron Age. It has been long debated whether this change was driven by a substantial movement of people, possibly linked to a larger migration of the so-called “Sea Peoples.” Here, we report genome-wide data of 10 Bronze and Iron Age individuals from Ashkelon. We find that the early Iron Age population was genetically distinct due to a European-related admixture. This genetic signal is no longer detectible in the later Iron Age population. Our results support that a migration event occurred during the Bronze to Iron Age transition in Ashkelon but did not leave a long-lasting genetic signature.

Feldman (2019) Philistines Y-DNA

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Rumor: Uyghurs are descendants of Turks.

Rumor: Uyghurs are descendants of Turks.

Truth:  According to the white paper released by the State Council Information Office in March, “the Uyghur ethnic group came into being in the long process of migration and ethnic integration; they are not descendants of the Turks.”

The main ancestors of the Uyghurs were the Ouigour people living on the Mongolian Plateau during the Sui Dynasty (581-618) and Tang Dynasty (618-907). Historically, to resist oppression and slavery by the Turks, the Ouigour people united with some of the Tiele tribes to form the Ouigour tribal alliance.

In 1934, Xinjiang issued a government order stipulating the standard Chinese name for Uyghur (维吾尔), which for the first time expressed the accurate meaning of “Uyghur” to maintain unity among the people.

Scholars in Xinjiang have also reached a consensus on this view.

Yasheng Sidike, mayor and deputy Party chief of Urumqi, wrote an article published in the Urumqi Evening Post on August 20, 2018, saying, “The Uyghur people are members of the Chinese family, not descendants of the Turks, let alone anything to do with Turkish people.” 

“The fallacies that claim ‘East Turkistan is our country’ and ‘Uyghur as natives of Xinjiang’ are ridiculous, ignorant and condemnable,” read the article.

“Uyghurs are not Turks,” Maimaitizunong Abdukirim, a professor at the Kashi University in Xinjiang, was quoted by Huaxia Dili, the Chinese edition of National Geographic, as saying in 2014. He said that linguistically, the Uyghur language belongs to the Turkic language group, but “it is not related by blood.” 

Haplogroup J2

Haplogroup J2 (M172) is a major subclade of Major Haplogroup J (P209). It is found in major parts of Asia, (Western, Central, and South), in Europe and North Africa as well. But it is mostly associated with Northwest Asia.
It is thought that this Haplogroup might have originated among the Caucasus Mountains, the Levant, and Mesopotamia.

Origins

The origins of this haplogroup J2 has been placed between 19000 and 24000 years ago. It is also proposed that J2 men settled in the Anatolia region, South Caucasus and Iran during the end of the Last Glaciation period (12000 years ago).

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Where is the Uighursrael?

Uighur+Israel=Uighursrael

Some historians have looked for possible connections between the Khazars and the lost tribes of Israel, but modern scholars generally consider them to be Turks who migrated from the East. Scholars in the former USSR considered the Khazars to be an indigenous people of the North Caucasus. Some scholars, such as D.M. Dunlop, considered the Khazars to be connected with Uyghur confederation tribe called He’san in Chinese sources from the 7th-century (Suishu, 84). However, the Khazar language appears to have been an Oghuric tongue, similar to that spoken by the early Bulgars. Therefore, a Hunnish origin has also been postulated. Since the Turkic peoples were never ethnically homogenous, these ideas need not be deemed mutually exclusive. It is likely that the Khazar nation was made up of tribes from various ethnic backgrounds, as steppe nations traditionally absorbed those they conquered. [1]

But where are the Uighurs? they mainly live in Xinjiang.

This is how Uighurs look like

And this is how Jews look like

This is the Israel

But where is the Uighursrael?