Primer Premier 5.0

软件介绍  

Primer Premie是一种用来帮助研究人员设计最适合引物的应用软件利用它的高级引物搜索引物数据库巢式引物设计引物编辑和分析等功能可以设计出有高效扩增能力的理想引物也可以设计出用于扩增长达50kb以上的PCR产物的引物序列。

    该软件主要由一下四个主要功能板块组成

       ·GeneTank 序列编辑

       ·Primer 引物设计

       ·Align 序列比较

       ·Enzyme 酶切分析

       ·Motif 基序分析

Primer Premier最新版本是6.25,但是很多人人习惯于用5.0这个经典版本,并且认为比后来的更新版本更好用。

内含以下版本:

Primer Premier 5.0 32位/64位绿色版本

链接:https://pan.baidu.com/s/181yozlFEXqlFm8PgYnRJmw 

提取码:wacl 

备用链接: http://pan.baidu.com/s/1hq2h4vM 

提取码: mmfu

【安装方法】

1、下载并解压Primer Premier 5.0算号器压缩包;

2、安装并运行Primer Premier 5.0(如图1);

3、点击Activate Product(如图2);

4、运行算号器,在Machine ID中输入上图所示数字,点击Generate(如图3);

5、将上图所示Activation Key输入图2中,出现如下提示(如图4)。

到此,Primer Premier 5.0已被成功激活,即可正常使用。

读完本文您将获得以下技能

0. 学会获取目的基因的CDS序列;
1. 学会设计引物;
2. 掌握Primer Premier 5的使用方法;
3. 懂得如何选择以及在引物上添加酶切位点;
4. 获取cDNA的多种渠道;
5. 初步掌握质粒构建的技能;
6. 获得快速构建质粒的高逼格技能

引物设计

通常我们要通过PCR获取目的基因片段,所以质粒构建第一步就是设计引物。首先大体了解一下引物设计的一些通用原则:

1. 引物长度一般在15~30 bp,最常用的是18~27bp;

2. 引物GC含量在40%~60%之间,Tm值最好在72℃左右。Tm值简单粗暴的计算方法为Tm=4×(G+C)+2×(A+T),或在此基础上减5℃;

3. 引物3’端不能选择A,最好选择T,G/C的错配率介于A/T之间;

4. 以上为最主要的原则,另外还要注意引物的特异性、引物内部不能形成二级结构等原则,具体可以百度之;

当然以上原则并不一定非要完全符合,但是作为一个新手而言初期最好是严格遵守为妙。下面就以构建人源PD1(PDCD1)为例为大家讲解。

CDS的获取

要设计引物自然要知道这个基因的CDS序列了。获取一个基因CDS序列的方法如下:
打开NCBI(https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov),如下图,按照顺序,在1处选择Nucleotide,在2处输入“PDCD1”,点击3处的Search,等出来结果之后点击4处的“Homo Sapiens”进行进一步筛选(如果你要做鼠源的就选Mus musculus,其他种属选择相应的名称即可进一步筛选了)

然后第一条就是我们需要的序列信息,点击进去,往下拉,直到看到CDS(如下图)

点击CDS,就出现了下图中所示内容,其中加了底色的部分序列便是我们需要的序列了,可以看到这段序列开头是ATG起始密码子,最后三位是TGA终止密码子。选中这段序列复制即可。

还可以点击右下角的FASTA得到下图所示内容,这边也可以方便的复制目的基因的CDS序列。

由于需要PCR整个CDS区域,所以正反向引物并没有多少选择的余地,甚至可以参照上述原则简单粗暴的从正反向各选择22个碱基左右作为引物,例如:


正向引物序列与CDS相同,反向引物序列与CDS互补。另外要注意的是写引物等序列都是要5’到3’的方向,一般不会从3’到5’,所以我们的CDS虽然没有注明方向,但是其实也是5’到3’。


虽然可以这么简单粗暴的设计引物,但是还是想借此教大家使用一下引物设计的经典软件Primer Premier 5。

Primer 5的使用

如下图,首先点击File->New->DNA Sequence,


然后点击空白处Ctrl+V粘贴我们的CDS序列,选择As is,即我们复制的是什么样的序列就粘贴的什么样的序列。

下面的依次是“反向序列粘贴”、“互补序列粘贴”“反向互补序列粘贴”。

点击左上角的Primer,如下图,S=Sense,A=Antisense

如果对现在的引物不满意,还可以点击Edit Primers编辑序列,如下图,我们删除掉末尾三个碱基,之后需要先点击Analyse,然后才能点击OK,我们可以看到正向引物已经从25个碱基变为22个碱基了。

最后点击Edit->Copy->Sense Primer,粘贴到Word中即可得到正向引物,反向引物Copy之后粘贴也会自动变为5’到3’的序列。所以非常方便,Primer 5还有很多强大的功能,你可以自行探索,也可以加小编微信(amateur_1988)拉入官方微信群交流。

这样我们PDCD1用于PCR的正反向引物就初步设计好了。如果你只是想P出PDCD1这个基因,现在的引物就可以送去合成了,但是如果你想将其构建到载体上,那么我们还要对其进行进一步的加工。

Primer 5的使用

根据不同的目的,可以选择不同的载体,如过表达(pcDNA 3.0)、敲减(pLKO.1-TRC)、原核纯化(pGEX-4T1、pET-28a)、病毒包装(pMSCV-puro)、敲除(lentiCRISPR v2)等。下面我们就以过表达载体pcDNA 3.0为例进行讲解。


从质粒图谱上可以看到多克隆位点有多个酶切位点可以选择,那是不是每个位点都可以用呢?当然不是!我们要选择那些PDCD1(或其他目的基因)本身没有的酶切位点!

所以我们还需要用Primer 5来分析一下哪些是PDCD1所没有的。

还是打开Primer 5,然后粘贴CDS序列,点击Enzyme,2为所有的酶,我们比对质粒图谱选择多克隆位点的酶,双击即可到3的框中,选好之后点击OK,可以看到PDCD1中有ApaI和KpnI两个酶切位点,所以这两个不可以选,其他的都可以选。


不过一般选择常用好用的最好是实验室就有现成的那些酶了。比如我们选择EcoRI和XhoI,那么我们就可以在对引物加上相应的酶切位点了。

于是我们得到如下引物:


好了,我们现在就可以将这些引物送去相应公司合成了。

质粒构建

终于到正题了!

待引物合成之后,我们用ddH2O将其稀释到100 μM作为母液,取一些稀释到10 μM做下一步实验了。

首先我们P出目的基因,这一步建议用高保真PCR酶,小编常用的是Toyobo公司的KOD-PLUS-Neo酶。反应体系及反应条件如下图:

模板的获取

1. 找到表达(最好高表达)该基因的细胞或者组织,用TRIzol法抽提RNA,然后用反转录试剂盒得到相应的cDNA作为模板;

2. 免费索取。给大家推荐一个可以免费索取cDNA的地址:http://hanlab.xmu.edu.cn。韩家淮院士为大家免费提供cDNA,只需要进入该网址点击左侧导航栏的cDNA索取”即可免费获取韩家淮院士实验室的cDNA了!

PCR完成之后跑1%的胶回收目的片段,也可以直接用PCR Clean试剂盒回收。回收之后将其双酶切,同时需要酶切适量载体。如果你使用的是Fermentas (Thermo)的酶,还可以打开网址http://t.cn/RVuwBVo查询双酶切所用的最佳Buffer。

酶切回收之后的片段进行连接,小编使用的是Thermo公司的T4连接酶,体系如下:

现在的T4连接酶基本都是快酶,比如Thermo的这款声称10 min就可以连接完成,不过小编保险起见,一般连接30 min,切勿连接过夜!

连接完成之后便是转化,挑菌(单克隆),摇菌抽提质粒,送去测序就OK了!

ئۇيغۇرلار ۋە ئىسرائىل ئەۋلادلىرى

ئۇيغۇر دېگەن ئۇقۇمنىڭ بارلىققا كېلىشى بىلەن ئىسرائىل ئەۋلادلىرىنىڭ مەۋجۇت بولۇشى ۋاقىت جەھەتتىن ئوخشاش بولمىسىمۇ ئەمما بۇ ئىككى ئۇقۇم ھەققىدە گېنىتىكا جەھەتتە مۇنازىرە قىلغىلى بولىدۇ.

بۈگۈنكى زاماندىكى ئۇيغۇرلار ئاساسى جەھەتتىن ياۋروپا ئېرىقىغا كىرىدىغان قىسمەن شەرقى ئاسىيا ۋە ئوتتۇرا شەرىق ئېرىقىغا تەۋە كىشىلەرنى كۆرسىتىدۇ. ئەمما بۇ ئەھۋال بارلىق ئالتە شەھەرلىك ئۇيغۇرلارغا ئورتاق ئەمەس بولۇپ قىسمەن ئېھتىماللىقلار بىزگە باشقىچە ھېكايىنى سۆزلەپ بېرىشى مۇمكىن. 

يۇقۇرقى تەتقىقات شىنجاڭ ئۇنىۋېرسىتىتى ھاياتلىق پەنلىرى ئىنىستىتۇدىكى دولقۇن يۈسۈپ باشچىلىقىدا ئىشلەنگەن بولۇپ شىنجاڭنىڭ ئۈچ ئوخشىمىغان ئورۇندىن 196 ئەۋرىشكە ئالغان. ئۇلار ئايرىم ئايرىم، كېرىيە، لوپنۇر، دولان. نەتىجىدە كىشىنى ئىنتايىن ھەيران قالدۇردىغان ئىش شۇكى لوپنۇرلۇقلاردىن ئېلىنغان ئەۋرىشكىنىڭ 43.75 پىرسەنتى،كېرىيەلىكلەرنىڭ تەخمىنەن 28 پىرسەنتى ج2ئا1 نى ئاساس قىلغان.    

ئۇنداقتا بۇ ج2ئا1 زادى كىم؟

كۆرگىنىڭلاردەك بۇ گۇرپا كىشىلەر ئاساسلىقى ئوتتۇرا شەرىق، كاۋكاز،ئىران قاتارلىق جايلاردىن كۆپ تېپىلىدۇ.ئۇنىڭدىن باشقا ئەڭ مۇھىمى بۇ خىل ئالاھىدىلىك مەيلى ئاشكىناز ياكى سېفاردىك يەھۇدىيلىرىدا بولسۇن ھەممىسىدە كۆپ تېپىلىدۇ. دېمەك بۇ لوپنۇرلۇق، بۇ كېرىيەلىك، بۇ خوتەنلىك ۋە باشقا ئۇيغۇلاردىن تېپىلغان ج2نىڭ رىۋايەتلەردىكى يوقاپ كەتكەن ئىسرائىل ئەۋلادلىرى بولىشى ئېھتىمالى بار ئەمەسمۇ؟ ، 

بۇ ھەقتە تېخىمۇ ئىزدەنمەكچى بولساڭلار بۇ توربەتنى كۆرۈپ باقساڭلار بولىدۇ.

دى ئېن ئادىن بىلگىلى بولىدىغان مەخپىيەتلىكلەر

دى ئېن ئا تەكشۈرۈش ئارقىلىق ئەجدادىنى بىلگىلى بولىغىغانلىقى ھەممىگە ئايان. ئەمما مەنچە دى ئېن ئا ئارقىلىق بىر ئادەمنىڭ خارەكتىرىنى، ئۇنىڭ ئەقىللىق ياكى دۆتلىكىنى، كەلگۈسىدە پۇل تاپالايدىغان ياكى تاپالمايدىغىنىنى، تېخىمۇ يۇقۇرى ئۆرلەپ ئوقۇيالايدىغانلىقى ياكى ئوقۇيالمايدىغانلىقىنى، ئەستە تۇتۇش قابىلىيىتىنى، ۋە مۇشۇنىڭدەك نۇرغۇن نەرسىلەرنىمۇ بىلگىلى بولىدىغانلىقى كىشىنى قىزىقتۇرماي قالمايدۇ.

كەلگۈسىدە پەقەت گېنىڭىز ئارقىلىق سىزنىڭ قىممىتىڭىز بەلگىلەنسە سىز قانداق پوزىتسىيەدە بولىسىز؟ گېنىڭىزگە ئاساسەن خىزمەتكە ئورۇنلاشتۇرۇلسىڭىز، گېنىڭىزگە ئاساسەن مۇئامىلىگە ئۇچرىسىڭىز. مەنچە گېنى ياخشى ئادەملەر ئۈچۈن بۇ بەك گۈزەل كەلگۈسى بولىدۇ، ئەمما گېنى ياخشى ئەمەس ئادەملەر ئۈچۈن بۇ بەك ئېچىنىشلىق بولىشى مۇمكىن. يۇقۇرقى گاتتاكا دېگەن كىنونى كۆرۈپ باقسىڭىز ئۇ خىل دۇنياۋى تەرتىپنىڭ قانداق بولىدىغانلىقىنى ئاز تولا بىلەلەيسىز. 

ئەمدى ئەسلى مەقسەتكە كەلسەم، مەنمۇ دەل مۇشۇ خىل ئالاھىدىلىكلىرىمنى بىلىپ باقاي دەپ دى ئېن ئا ئۇچۇرۇمنى گېنوملىنك دېگەن توربەت ئارقىلىق تەكشۈرۈپ باقتىم. نەتىجىسىدىن بەكىرەك بۇ شېركەت گېنىم ئارقىلىق نىمىلەرنى دىيەلەيدۇ دېگەنگە قىزىقىشىم كۈچلۈك ئىدى. 

كۆرۈپ تۇرغىنىڭىزدەك بۇ شېركەت سىزگە يېمەك ئىچمەك ئوزۇقلىنىش ئادىتىڭىز توغۇرلۇق، خاراكتىرىڭىز توغۇرلۇق، ئەقلى قابىلىيىتىڭىز توغۇرلۇق، بەدەن ھالىتىڭىز توغۇرلۇق ۋە تەنتەربىيە بىلەن شۇغۇللىنىش ئەھۋالىڭىز توغۇرلۇق ئۇچۇرلارنى بېرەلەيدىكەن. ھەربىر بۆلەكنىڭ ئىچىدە يەنە نۇرغۇن ئالاھىدىلىكلىرىڭىز ياكى كامچىلىقلىرىڭىز توغۇرلۇق ئۇچۇرلارنى تەمىنلەيدىكەن.  

مەنچە خارەكتىرىنىڭ قانداق بولۇشى دى ئېن ئا تەرىپىدىن بەلگىلىنىپ بولۇنغان بولسا ئۇنداقتا بىر بالىنىڭ قانداق خارەكتىردە چوڭ بولىشىدا شۇ بالىنىڭ ئاتا ئانىسى بىۋاستە پۈتۈن مەسئۇلىيەتنى ئۈستىگە ئېلىشى كېرەككەن. ئەلۋەتتە مۇھىت ئامىلى چوڭ ئامىل ئەمما بالىنىڭ ئەسكى ياكى ياخشى بولىشىدا ئاتا ئانا بىۋاستە رول ئوينايدىكەن. خارەكتىرنى تەكشۈرۈشنىڭ يەنە بىر ئۇسۇلى بار بولۇپ ئۇنى م ب ت ي دەپ ئاتايدىكەن. پۈتكۈل دۇنيادىكى ئىنسانلار 16 خىل خارەكتىرنى تەشكىل قىلىدىكەن.

خارەكتىرىڭىزنى بىلىپ بولغاندىن كېيىن ئەقلى قابىلىيىتىڭىزنى بىلگىڭىز كېلىدۇ ئەلۋەتتە، دى ئېن ئا نەتىجىسى بۇنىمۇ تەپسىلى دەپ بېرەلەيدىكەن.

ئەقىل توغۇرلۇق نەتىجىلەرنى ئۆز ئىچىگە ئالغان مەزمۇن تېخىمۇ ئادەمنى جەلىپ قىلىدۇ. ئەقىلنى پىسخلوگلار ئىككىگە ئايرىغان بولۇپ بىرى توختامسىز ئەقىل يەنە بىرى توختاملىق ئەقىل. توختامسىز ئەقىل دېگىنى دەرھال ئىنكاس ئىقتىدارى بولۇپ، توختاملىق ئەقىل دېگىنى ئەمەلىيەتتە پاراسەتنى كۆرسىتىدۇ. دى ئېن ئا نەتىجىدە مېنى دەل دەرھال ئىنكاس تۆۋەن ئەمما ئىنتايىن پاراسەتلىك دەپ چىقتى ، بۇنىڭدىن باشقا مەكتەپتە جىق ئوقۇيالمايدۇ دەپ كۆرسىتىپتۇ ئەپسۇس مۇھىت ئامىلى سەۋەبلىك مەكتەپتە خېلى ئوقۇپ كېتىپتىمەندە ئەسلى دەپ ئويلاپ قالدىم.  

ئەقىلنى سىنايدىغان يەنە بىر پىسخىكىلىق سىناق بار ئۇ دەل ئەقلى كوئىفىسىنتنى سىناش ئۇسۇلى. بۇ ئارقىلىقمۇ مەن ئەقلى قابىلىيىتىمنى تەكشۈرۈپ باقتىم. نەتىجىدە دى ئېن ئانىڭ نەتىجىسىگە خېلى ماس كەلدى.

بۇ نەتىجىدىكى ئابستىراكىت كەلتۈرۈپ چىقىرىش ئىقتىدارى دەل دى ئېن ئا نەتىجىدىن چىققان توختامسىز ئەقىل بىلەن ئوخشاش بولۇپ.دەرھال ئىنكاسىم تېز ئەمەسكەن.تەغدىرگە تەن بەرمەي ئامال يوق. ئامما باشقا ئىقتىدارىم بولۇپمۇ ئانالىتىك ئويلاش ۋە دېققەتنى يېغىش ئىقتىدارىم ئىنتايىن يۇقۇرى ئىكەن. مەنچە مۇشۇ سەۋەبلىك ئوقۇپ كەتكەن ئوخشايمەن. 

قىززىقمىكەن؟ 

نېمە ئۈچۈن شىنجاڭ مەدەنىيەتنىڭ مەركىزى ئىدى؟

نېمە ئۈچۈن جۇڭگارىيە (شىنجاڭ) مەدەنىيەتنىڭ مەركىزى قاتناش مەركىزى ئىدى؟ ھەمدە جۇڭگونىڭ سېپىل تېمى بولۇپلا قالماي ، چوڭ يىپەك يولىدىكى تۆگە كارۋانلىرى ئۈچۈن تاشيول ئىدى؟ قۇرۇقلۇقنىڭ ھىمالايا تېغى قاپلانغانلىقى ئۈچۈن ، ياۋروپاغا بارىدىغان بىردىنبىر يول بار ئىدى. تۆگە كارۋانلىرى مانجۇرىيەگە يىپەك قاچىلانغان بولۇپ ، جۇڭگونىڭ سەددىچىن سېپىلىنى بويلاپ بېيجىڭغا ئەۋەتىلگەن! ئانچە يىراق بولمىغان جۇڭگونىڭ سېپىلىنى بويلاپ غەربكە مېڭىپ ، جۇڭگونىڭ شىمالىدىكى ناھايىتى تاغلىق رايوندىن ئۆتۈپ ، جيايۇ ئېغىزى دەپ ئاتىلىدىغان جۇڭگارىيەنىڭ كىرىش ئېغىزىغا تۇتىشىدۇ ، تيەنشەننىڭ غەربىدىن ئالتاينىڭ شىمالى بىلەن تۇتىشىدۇ. جۇڭگارىيە رايونى غەربتىن تيەنشەن تاغ تىزمىسى ، شىمالدىن ئالتاي تېغى ، غەربىي شىمالدىن جۇڭغار ئالتاي تېغى بىلەن تۇتىشىدىغان ئۈچبۇلۇڭ. يەنە كارۋانلار جۇڭگارىيە ئالتاي تېغىدىن شەكىللەنگەن جۇڭگارىيە ئۈچبۇلۇڭىنىڭ غەربىي شىمال تەرىپىگە باردى. بۇ تاغ تىزمىسىنىڭ تەبىئىي ئۆتۈشمە يولى بولۇپ ، «جۇڭگار دەرۋازىسى» ياكى «ئالتاي ئېغىزى» دەپ ئاتىلىدۇ. بۇ يول ئالما-ئاتا شەھىرىگە جايلاشقان ئالاكول كۆلى ۋە ئەيبى كۆلى (ئېبىنۇر) دىن ئىبارەت ئىككى كۆلنىڭ سەۋىيىسىگە جايلاشقان بولۇپ ، بۇ يەر ئىلگىرىكى ئوتتۇرا ئاسىيادىكى دېڭىزنىڭ قالدۇقلىرى بولۇپ يېقىنقى نەچچە مىڭ يىلدا بۇ رايوننىڭ ئاپەت خاراكتېرلىك قۇرۇپ كېتىشى يۈز بەرگەن. جۇڭگار دەرۋازىسىدىن ئۆتكەن كارۋانلار تاغلىق رايوندىن ئايرىلىدۇ ۋە ئاللىبۇرۇن بۇ يولنى بويلاپ زىچ ئولتۇراقلاشقان زەنجىر بىلەن ماڭىدۇ: ئالمائاتا – بىشكەك (فرۇنزې). ئالما-ئاتا بىلەن بىشكەك ئارىلىقىدا ، بۇ يول بالقاش بىلەن ئىسساق كۆل دىن ئىبارەت ئىككى چوڭ كۆل ئارىسىدا ماڭىدۇ. ئاندىن ، تۈز سىزىق بويىچە ، جەنۇب – غەرب – جامبۇل – تاشكەنت – سەمەرقەنت – بوخارا – چاردجوۋ – ئاشگابات – تېھران – باغدات – ئىسرائىلىيە ، يېرۇسالېم.

شۇڭلاشقا «بۇخارا يەھۇدىيلىرى» نىڭ بىر ئۇچى ئۇيغۇرلاردىن باشلانغان. يەنى جوڭگار دەرۋازىسى بىلەن باشلانغان. قانداقلا بولمىسۇن ، ھەممە نەرسە بۇ رايوننىڭ كېلىماتنىڭ يېقىندا ئۆزگۈرىشى ۋە قۇرغاقلىشى ئاپىتىنىڭ يۈز بەرگەنلىكىنى كۆرسىتىپ بېرىدۇ. ئىلگىرى ، بۇ يەردە سۇ بار ئىدى ، پۈتكۈل جۇڭگارىيە يەنى شىنجاڭ بەلكىم بوستانلىق دېڭىز بولۇشى مۇمكىن. ھازىر بۇلار قۇملۇق ۋە قاتتىق تاغلار.

Why was Xinjiang the Central Transport hub of Civilization up to the new time?

Why was Dzungaria (Xinjiang) the Central Transport hub of Civilization up to the new time, and the Great Wall of China was not only a wall, and a highway for camel caravans of the Great Silk Road?  Because of the overlapping of the continent by the Himalayas, there was the only passage to Europe.  Camel caravans were loaded with silk in Manjuria and were sent across Beijing along the Great Wall of China!  Not far were walking along the Great Wall of China to the west through a very mountainous region of the north of China to the entrance to Dzhunaria, which is called the “JIAYU passage” – Jiayu Pass, limited on three sides from the west of Tien Shan as the north of Altai mountains.  The Dzungaria region is a triangle bounded from the west by the Tien Shan ridge, from the north by the Altai Mountains and from the north-west by the ridge from the Dzungarian Altai.  Further caravans went to the northwest side of the Dzungaria triangle, formed by the ridge of the Dzungarian Altai.  Here is the natural passage of the ridge, which is called the “Dzungarian Gate” or “Altai Pass”.  This passage is located at the level of two lakes – Lake Alakol, which is located under the city of Alma-Ata, and Lake Aibi (Ebinur), already on the territory of China, which are the remnants of the former sea here, and that speaks of the catastrophic drying up of the region in recent millennia.  Having passed the Dzhungar Gate, the caravans left the mountain region and already normally walked in a densely populated chain along the route: Alma – Ata – Bishkek (Frunze).  Between Alma-Ata and Bishkek, the route ran between the two great lakes BAALhash and ISAAK-Kul.  Then, almost in a straight line, south – west – Jambul – Tashkent – Samarkand – Bokhara – ChardJOU – Ashgabat – Tehran – Baghdad – Israel, Jerusalem.  That is why there is such a people as “Bukhara Jews”, not only they are alone along the Great Silk Road of Jewish origin.  there are many, starting with the Uighurs.  The extreme ended and in the opposite direction began with the Dzungarian gates.  However, everything shows that the climate in this region has recently changed dramatically in the direction of dehydration and drying.  Previously, there was water and the whole Dzungaria was, possibly, a sea with oases.  Now these are deserts and harsh mountains. 

Jesus Christ and J2 haplogroup

Jews are currently understood in two ways: those who believe in Judaism (religions that believe only in the Old Testament but not in the New Testament) (religious groups) or those who have Jews as their parents (ethnic groups). There is. There was a theory that the Israelites at the time when the Jewish kingdom existed were of a colored race, and that the white Jews (Ashkenazim) came from claiming the Jews by the Khazar conversion to Judaism in the 8th century. In the past, the theory that pedigree Jews were only race of color (Sefardim) was dominant, but as a result of research by molecular biology, white Jews (Ashkenazim) have European traits. Although similar to humans, most of their Y-chromosome haplogroups belong to the Middle East origins of ” J1 ” or ” J2 “, and are clearly lineages of male Jewish descendants. Became.

Y chromosome haplogroup J strain [Middle East]

Abraham

Abraham Y chromosome of (Abraham) is haplogroup J is estimated to be (J-M304) (Note 1).

abraham.jpg

picture from WikipediaNote 1) haplogroups.org ” Haplogroup J1 is Definitely Not Semitic in Origin! ” (2015.9.10)

Y chromosome haplogroup J1 strain [Middle East]

Fatov Ali Shah

The Y chromosome of the 2nd Emperor of the Persian Emperor Gadjard Emperor Fatov Ali Shah (1772-1834) is the haplogroup J1 (J-L255) (Note 1). Fatov Ali Shah has 158 people. It is said that he had a wife and 260 children.

ali_shah.jpg

picture from Wikipedia* 1) Eupedia ” Famous people’s Y-DNA listed by haplogroup “

Prophet Muhammad Ibn-Abdullah (Krish, Hashim)

The Y chromosome of the Prophet and founder of Islam Muhammad Ibn-Abdullah (570-632) is the haplogroup J1a1b1b1a2a1a1a4a1a1b2 (J-L147.1 *, subclade-L859) (Note 1). This is the result of analyzing samples obtained from two members of the Jordanian royal family. Muhammad is from the prestigious Hasim family of the Clais, a controlling tribe of Mecca, the central city of the Hijaz region in the west central part of the Arabian Peninsula.

kuruan.jpg

picture from Wikipedia* 1) ” Y-DNA famous people “

Jewish priesthood (descendant of Moses’ brother Aaron, Levi, Cohen family)

Is a Jewish hereditary priesthood (priest) Cohen Y chromosome of (Cohen) house, haplogroup J1a1b1b1a2a1a1a4b1a is a (J-L147.1 *, subclade- Z18271) ( Note 1). This is based on data obtained from a few males of the Cohens worldwide. The Cohen family is a male ancestor of the priesthood (priesthood) who has inherited the heritage, is an Ashkenazi Jew, and is a descendant of Moses’ brother Aaron, and belongs to the Levi tribe. Based on these results, the speculation that “Ashkenazi Jews are not pure Jews but descendants of White Hazars who converted on the way” was completely denied (Note 2) (Note 3) ) (Note 4).

aaron.jpg

picture from Wikipedia

DYS39339019391385a385b426388439389i392389ii
Alleles12twenty three14Ten1315111612131130

* 1) ” J1 Y-DNA Project “* 2) ” Extended Y chromosome haplotypes resolve multiple and unique lineages of the Jewish priesthood “* 3) national geographic ” OUR STORY “* 4) FTDNA ” Cohen DNA Project-Y-DNA “

Dustin Hoffman

The Y-chromosome of American actor Dustin Hoffman (1937-) is the haplogroup J1a1b1b1a2a1a1a4b1a (J-ZS227, subclade-Z18271) (Note 1) (Note 2).

dustin_hoffman.jpg

picture from WikipediaDustin Hoffman is an Ashkenazi Jewish American with Ukrainian and Romanian Jewish parents.
* 1) Eupedia ” Famous people’s Y-DNA listed by haplogroup “* 2) Eupedia ” Dustin Hoffman may belong to Y-haplogroup J1 “

Y chromosome haplogroup J2 strain [Middle East]

Tiberius Julius Abdes Pantera

Phoenicians, Tiberius Iulius Abdes Pantera (Tiberius Iulius Abdes Pantera, BC 22 BC – 40 years after AD) Y chromosome of, haplogroup J2 is estimated to be (J-M172) (Note 1) (Note 2). Tiberius Julius, from Sidon, Phoenicia, was a member of the Roman Empire for about 40 years, was a member of the First Cohorus Arch Corps, and was granted Roman citizenship by virtue of his longstanding service. Pantera (Note 4) means “leopard” and Abdes means “servant of God.” Although he was named “Abdes Pantera”, he was honored to change his name to the Roman name “Tiberius Julius” when he was given the citizenship of Rome (Note 5) (Note 6).

pantera1.jpg
pantera2.jpg

picture from Wikipedia
In the streets, Joshua of Nazareth (Jesus, Ίησοῦς), the son of Abdes Pantera, is the founder of Christianity. Christianity (Christ today, Christianity, Greek: Χριστιανισμός, Latin: Religio Christiana, English: Christianity) means “ believing Jesus of Nazareth as Christ (savior), Jesus Christ preaching the gospel of the kingdom of God, It was crucified and resurrected to rescue a guilty human being. ” The number of believers in the world exceeds 2 billion, and is said to be the highest among all religions. However, on the other hand, Jesus did not preach Christianity but preached the doctrine as a sect of Judaism, and it was his disciple Peter who systematized it as a doctrine different from Judaism. Also exists. Confirmation that Jesus of Nazareth is the Savior has not been found so far, and the number of people questioning the content of the Bible is increasing, mainly in the West (Note 7).
In 2016, a team of scientists led by Professor Antonia Moropoulo of the National Institute of Technology, Athens, Greece, used Jerusalem to restore Christ’s stone tomb, the “edicula,” using the latest technology to make the scientific A survey was conducted (Note 8).
Note 1) ” Identifying Genetic Traces of Historical Expansions: Phoenician Footprints in the Mediterranean “Note 2) ” Haplogroup J2, Romans, Viticulture and Christianity. “Note 3) P. Haupt / S. Hornung, “Ein Mitglied der Heiligen Familie! Zur Rezeption eines römischen Soldatengrabsteines aus Bingerbrück”, Kr. Mainz-Bingen. In: Archäologische Informationen 27/1, 2004, S.133-140.* 4) Latin that means panther.* 5) Marcello Craveri, La vita di Gesù, Feltrinelli, Milano, 1966, 466 pp6) Origenes Adamantius, Contra Celsum, AD 2487) Jesus Christ is not the founder of Christianity (2017.1.6)Note 8) Nikkei web, “ The tomb of Christ” of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher is opened for the first time in several centuries to scientific research (2016.10.31)

Amir Timur

The Y chromosome of the founder of the Timur Dynasty, Amir Timur (تيمور Amir Tīmūr / Taymūr, 1336-1405), is the haplogroup J2 (J-M172) (Note 1). This is due to the results of analyzes based on samples obtained from multiple Uzbek men who are descendants of Amir Timur.

amir_timur.jpg

picture from Wikipedia* 1) ” Y-DNA J Haplogroup Project “

Nicholas M. Donofrio

Nicholas M. Donofrio , who was Vice President of Innovation and Technology at IBM until 2008, has the haplogroup J2 (J-M172) on the Y chromosome (Note 1). He is also a member of the Advisory Committee of the Genographic Project (Note 2).

n_donofrio.jpg

picture from Wikipedia* 1) IBM Executive Vice President, Innovation and Technology tested with the Geneographic Project* 2) ” Nick Donofrio “

Alexander Zulin

The Y chromosome of Russian figure skater and Olympic silver medalist Alexander Zourin is Haplo Group J2 (J-M172) (Note 1).

zhulin.jpg

picture from Wikipedia* 1) Eupedia ” Haplogroup J2 (Y-DNA) “

Matt Lauer

The Y chromosome of American journalist Matt Lauer (1957-) is haplogroup J2 (J-M172) (Note 1) (Note 2) (Note 3). His father, Jay Robert Lauer, was of Jewish Romanian origin.

matt_lauer.jpg

picture from Wikipedia* 1) ” Famous Haplogroups “2) 23andMe ” Y-dna Haplogroups of Famous People “* 3 NBC Today ” Where did we come from? ” (2005.11.18) Genealogist Dr. Spencer Wells talks about Humans Genetics.* 4) NBC Today ” Matt discovers his roots “

Dr. Steve Salvatore

Dr. Steve Salvatore , who hosts the popular TV show Dr. Steve show, has the Y chromosome of the haplogroup J2 (J-M172) (Note 1). (Note 2).

steve_salvatore1.jpg
steve_salvatore2.jpg

picture from: http://pix11.com/author/dr-steve-salvatore/* 1) Inside Cornell ” Ancestry project maps DNA paths of student origins “

Friedrich Engelhorn

German industrial family, Friedrich Engel horn (Friedrich Engelhorn, 1821-1902) Y chromosome of, haplogroups J2a is a (J-M410) (Note 1).

engelhorn.jpg

picture from Wikipedia* 1) Eupedia ” Haplogroup J2 (Y-DNA) “

Y chromosome haplogroup J2a1 strain

Hugh Montgomery (Count Eglinton)

In Scotland the nobility, the 12th generation Eglinton Earl (Earl of Eglinton) · Hugh Montgomery (Hugh Montgomerie, 12th Earl of Eglinton , 1739-1819) Y chromosome of, haplogroups J2a1 is a (J-L26) (Note 1) (Note 2).

hugh_montgomerie.jpg

picture from Wikipedia* 1) Eupedia ” Famous people’s Y-DNA listed by haplogroup “* 2) ” Montgomery Surname DNA Project (Earl Ray Montgomery) “

Y chromosome haplogroup J2a1b strain [Middle East]

Mike Nichols

The Y chromosome of American film director Mike Nichols (real name: Michael Igor Peschkowsky, 1931-2014), whose father is Jewish-Russian, is the haplogroup J2a1b (J-M67) (Note 1).

mike_nichols.jpg

picture from WikipediaNote 1) Faces of America (Television Program, Page 31) by Henry Louis Gates

Mahomet Oz

The Y chromosome of Dr. Mahomet Oz, a professor of heart surgery at Columbia University, is the moderator of the doctor information show “Doctor Oz Show” broadcasted in 140 countries (* 1) (* 2) around the world including the United States. , Haplo Group J2a1b (J-M67) (Note 3).

oz.jpg

picture from WikipediaNote 1) “ Health Variety Doctor Oz Show-Official Site ” (Sony Pictures)Note 2) According to the Sankei Shimbun, it was broadcast in 112 countries around the world.3) 23andMe ” Y-dna Haplogroups of Famous People “

Burt Bacharach

Grammy and Academy Award winning American composer Burt Bacharach ‘s Y chromosome is the haplogroup J2a1b1a (J-L556) (Note 1).

burt_bacharack.jpg

picture from Wikipedia* 1) Eupedia ” Haplogroup J2 (Y-DNA) “

Rothschild family

The Y chromosome of the Jewish wealthy Rothschilds is the haplogroup J2a1b3 (J-L210) (Note 1).

rothschild.jpg

picture from Wikipedia* 1) Eupedia ” Haplogroup J2 (Y-DNA) “

Adam Richard Sandler

The Y chromosome of American comedian Adam Richard Sandler (1966-) is the haplogroup J2a1b3 (J-L210, subclade-Z30390) (Note 1) (Note 2).

adam_sandler.jpg

picture from Wikipedia* 1) Eupedia ” Famous people’s Y-DNA listed by haplogroup “2) Eupedia ” Actor Adam Sandler may belong to Y-haplogroup J2a1 “

Y chromosome haplogroup J2a1d strain

Ben Affleck

American actor, screenwriter and film director Ben Affleck (real name: Benjamin Géza Affleck-Boldt, 1972-) has the haplogroup J2a1d (J-M319) on the Y chromosome (Note 1). This was revealed by the PBS TV “Finding Your Roots” series.

ben_affleck.jpg

picture from WikipediaNote 1) Eupedia ” Famous people’s Y-DNA listed by haplogroup “

Y chromosome haplogroup J2a1h strain

John Joseph Curtin

The 14th Prime Minister of Australia, John Joseph Curtin (1885-1945), has the Y chromosome as the haplogroup J2a1h2 * (J-L25 *, subclade-F3133) (Note 1). This is the result of an analysis based on samples obtained from his offspring (Note 2).

curtin.jpg

picture from Wikipedia* 1) Curtin Clan-An international community for genealogy, research and fellowship* 2) Eupedia ” Haplogroup J2 (Y-DNA) “

Thomas Coleman Younger

American West invasion era behind the scenes the James-Younger Gang team of Thomas Coleman Younger (Thomas Coleman Younger, 1844-1916) Y chromosome of, haplogroups J2a1h2a1 is a (J-L70, subclade-FGC24630 ) ( Note 1 ).

coleman.jpg

picture from Wikipedia* 1) Eupedia ” Haplogroup J2 (Y-DNA) “

Y chromosome haplogroup J2b1 strain

Sir John Anthony Pople

In 1998, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry-winning chemist, Sir John Anthony Popuru (Sir John Anthony Pople, 1925-2004) Y chromosome of, haplogroups J2b1a is a (J-M205, subclade-YP13 ) ( Note 1).

john_pople.jpg

picture from Wikipedia* 1) Eupedia ” Haplogroup J2 (Y-DNA) “

Y chromosome haplogroup J2b2 strain

John Lorimar Warden

The Y chromosome of Admiral John Lorimer Worden (1818-1897), who commanded the Union Army of the Battle of Hampton Rose in 1862 during the American Civil War, is the haplogroup J2b2 (J-M241). Note 1). The Battle of Hampton Rose is famous as the first battle between armored ships in history.

worden.jpg

picture from WikipediaNote 1) ” Worden DNA “

Rod Ashin and the ancient Türks

June 19, 2019311 full reads4 min.463 views . Unique page visitors.311 full reads , 67 %. Users who read to the end.4 min. Average time to read the post.

At the dawn of the early Middle Ages, Central Asia became a seething cauldron in which various tribes and peoples formed. Nomadic states succeeded each other one after another. Some of them were durable, and some collapsed as quickly as they formed. But all of them had characteristic features that influenced the course of history not only of the Central Asian region, but also of Eurasia as a whole. These features were militancy in relation to neighboring tribes and states. But especially this hostility was manifested towards the Chinese states of that period (nomads constantly waged wars with the Chinese). As a result of the aggressive policies of the Ashin Turks, many tribes were forced to migrate to different regions. As a result of their conquests, the Avars – immigrants from Asia fled to Europe. Following the Avars in 567, the Volga was forced by the troops of the Turkic Kaganate, headed by Istemi (the ruler of the western wing of the Kaganate), and pursued the Avar. In 568, the Turkic troops conquered the tribes that roamed in the Caspian steppes and the tribe of Uturgurs.

But before describing the subsequent events, it is necessary to clarify: who were the Turks led by Istemi. The Türks who arrived in Europe in 567, not long before that were able to conquer all of Central Asia and inflict a series of military defeats on the states of Northern China. Since then, in my opinion, the Ashin Turks have become the most dangerous opponents for the Chinese of the early Middle Ages. These few people managed to create a huge empire that controlled a large part of the Great Silk Road, originating in China and going further west: to Iran and Byzantium (Eastern Roman Empire). Thus, the ancient Türks were the first people to receive huge benefits for the transit of goods moving along the Great Silk Road (Chinese silk was considered the most expensive product of that time).

The ancient Turks not only created their empire, they managed to formulate their ideology, which was opposed to the ideology of the Chinese. In turn, the Chinese saw in the Turks their irreconcilable enemies, whom they sought to destroy repeatedly, thereby putting an end to the hearth from which the flames of war spread to their states. To begin with, it must be clarified that the modern Turkic peoples and the ancient Turks of Ashin are different peoples. Turkic peoples is a term introduced in relation to peoples speaking similar languages ​​belonging to the Turkic group of the Altai language family. Moreover, some modern Turkic peoples by their origin are not necessarily descendants of one people – a common ancestor. Among them there are peoples who adopted the Turkic language as a spoken language, which became their native language, but by origin (genetics) they (peoples) are closer to the Indo-Europeans. Thus, the ancient Türks are a people that existed in the era of the early Middle Ages, by whose name neighboring peoples began to be called tribes and peoples close to the ancient Türks in language and culture. Ancient Turks entered the arena of world history under the rule of the Ashin clan. Subsequently, representatives of this kind ruled many states for centuries. According to L.N. Gumilev, the word “Ashina” consists of two parts: the Mongolian “shono”, meaning “wolf” and the Chinese prefix of respect – “A”, that is, “Ashina” means “noble wolf”. In the Chinese dynasty chronicles Zhou shu, Bei shi and Sui shu, two legends about the origin of the Ashin clan are reproduced. According to the first legend, the ancestors of the Ashin clan were the branch of the “house of the Huns from the Western Region to the West” (that is, the power of the Huns in Europe). Ashina lived on the banks of a large swamp (Bei Shi and Sui Shu on the right bank of the “West Sea”) and were exterminated by a neighboring tribe. Only a ten-year-old boy survived, to whom the enemies chopped off his arms and legs, and threw him to die in a grassy swamp. The dying boy was found by a she-wolf, who fed and healed him, and thereby saved his life. Soon, the enemies found out that the wolf had saved the crippled boy they had left. Upon returning, they killed the surviving boy. The she-wolf, fleeing north of the Turfan oasis to the mountains of the Tien Shan, escaping. There, hiding in a cave, she gave birth and nurtured ten sons, whose father was the boy she saved. Having matured, her sons married girls from the Turfan oasis. Children born from these marriages took the generic names of their wives. One of the wolf’s sons bore the name of Ashin, his family was named after him. From the descendants of the ten sons of the she-wolf, a tribe was formed, whose leader was Ashina. Over time, the number of births increased to several hundred. After some time, a descendant of Ashin named Arslan-shad (the shad in the ancient Turkic title meant the heir-prince) moved his tribe from the Turfan oasis to Altai. In Altai, the descendants of a she-wolf from the Ashin clan become subjects of the Juan (the military alliance known as the Juan Khaganate, “kaganate” is equivalent to an empire). In Altai, the Ashin clan mined and processed iron for the Juan-Juan, thus paying tribute. Ashin’s descendant named Arslan-shad (the shad in the ancient Turkic title meant the heir-prince) moved his tribe from the Turfan oasis to Altai. In Altai, the descendants of a she-wolf from the Ashin clan become subjects of the Juan (the military alliance known as the Juan Khaganate, “kaganate” is equivalent to an empire). In Altai, the Ashin clan mined and processed iron for the Juan-Juan, thus paying tribute. Ashin’s descendant named Arslan-shad (the shad in the ancient Turkic title meant the heir-prince) moved his tribe from the Turfan oasis to Altai. In Altai, the descendants of a she-wolf from the Ashin clan become subjects of the Juan (the military alliance known as the Juan Khaganate, “kaganate” is equivalent to an empire). In Altai, the Ashin clan mined and processed iron for the Juan-Juan, thus paying tribute.

According to the second legend, the Ashin clan came from the tribe of So (possibly one of the Syanbi tribes). The head of the Co tribe, named Abanbu, had seventeen brothers, one of whom was named “the son of a she-wolf” by the name of Izhinishidu. The tribe of Co was defeated by the enemies “because of their own stupidity.” The surviving birth is scattered. Izhinishidu possessed supernatural powers, thanks to which, his family was in the most favorable position. One of his sons became the “white swan” and the founder of the ancient Kyrgyz tribe, whose possessions were between the rivers Abakan and Upper Yenisei. The third son ruled the Zhujie River. The eldest son, Izhinishida, was called Nodulu Shad, who ruled by his own family and lived in the Jiangsi Zhujeshi. The clan of the former ruler of the tribe So Abanbu, defeated before this, as indicated above, by neighbors, joined the clan of Nodulu-shad. Nodulu Shad had ten wives; their sons bore the generic names of their mothers. The son of the youngest wife was called Ashin. After the death of Nodulu-shad, his sons decided that the most dexterous and strongest of them would become the ruler, which was Ashina, who took the name Arslan-shad (Arslan in Turkic means a lion). Arslan-shad was succeeded by Tuu (either a son or a nephew), and Tuu was succeeded by Bumyn (the eldest son of Tuu), who founded the state of the Ashin Turks. The second legend is explained by N.A. Aristov, who compared the tribe “Co” legends with the genus “Co” among the Kumandy – the North Altai tribe on the river. He linked the first son with the Swan tribe, the Ku-Kizhi, and the second with the Kyrgyz, who lived between Abakan and the Yenisei. According to S.G. Klyashtorny, the above legends go back to the same archetype and describe the same events with varying degrees of detail, reproduced by Chinese chroniclers and most likely are different versions of the same legend. Thus, the common in two versions of the legend about the origin of the Ashin clan is that they are descendants of the she-wolf, that the ancestors of the Ashin clan were defeated by enemies. The survivors fled from the places of their original residence and about the initial ten-clan composition of Ashin, with each genus being named after the wives. Arslan Shad also appears in both versions, apparently playing an outstanding role in the history of the Ashin clan. The survivors fled from the places of their original residence and about the initial ten-clan composition of Ashin, with each genus being named after the wives. Arslan Shad also appears in both versions, apparently playing an outstanding role in the history of the Ashin clan. The survivors fled from the places of their original residence and about the initial ten-clan composition of Ashin, with each genus being named after the wives. Arslan Shad also appears in both versions, apparently playing an outstanding role in the history of the Ashin clan.

In the Chinese chronicle of Tang Shu, the following story of the origin of the Ashin clan is narrated: among the tribes defeated by the Tabasians when they conquered northern China, there were “five hundred families” of Ashin. These “five hundred families” were formed “from a mixture of different genera” (according to LN Gumilyov, the Ashin clan included both representatives of the Syanbi clans (Pramongols) and the Hunnic clans (Pratürkic) who lived in the western part of Shaanxi, conquered in the VI century among the Chinese by the Huns and Syanbians. Ashina were subjects of the Hunnic prince Mugan, who owned Hesi (an area west of Ordos, between the bend of the Yellow River and Nanshan). In 439, the Tabasians (the Syanbi people) defeated the Huns and captured Hesi, annexing this area to the Wei empire. After this, Prince “Ashina with five hundred families fled to the Zhuzhans and, settling on the southern side of the Altai Mountains, mined iron for the Zhuzhans. ” Initially, Ashina spoke among themselves in the Syanbi language, as evidenced by the titles adopted by them: Khan, Kagan, Bagatur and so on. Also, the appearance of representatives of the genus Ashin was Mongoloid. In favor of the Syanbi (Pramongolian) origin of the Ashin clan according to L.N. Gumilev says “the difference between them (within the Ashin clan), which can be traced back to the 7th century, as a division into black and white bones, as evidenced by the heredity of positions among the aristocracy and the prohibition of” noble “girls to marry a young man from the people” (that is Syanbi part of the tribe, headed by the Ashin clan, mixed with the Praturk part of the subjects of the Ashin clan). After moving to Altai, Ashina found themselves among the peoples who spoke Praturk languages. In consequence of this, after some time (about a hundred years), representatives of the genus switched to the Praturk language. Soon, Ashina took a dominant position among the surrounding pre-Turkic tribes. Their “subjects” began to be called Turks, which means “strong.”

In 542, the Ashin Turks were led by Bumyn. In 545, the ambassador of the Chinese emperor named Tai-Tsu arrived at Bumyin’s headquarters, who ruled the Wei empire. Tai Tsu was looking for an ally in the fight against the Juan Khaganate. As a result of negotiations, an alliance was concluded between the Ashin Turks in the person of Bumyn and the Wei empire. It was in 545 that the state of the Ashin Turks was recognized in the international arena. The formation of the Turkic Kaganate began.

The materials for this article are taken from open sources and are the property of their respective owners.

https://zen.yandex.ru/media/id/5ce10aa9ba8e4d00b2410799/rod-ashina-i-drevnie-tiurki-5d091fae344b9e00af600f64

Bashkirs and Turks

The Bashkir language is one of the Turkic languages, which is classified as a Kipchak group, i.e. they refer the origin of the Bashkir language to the Kipchak language. The Kipchak group is a conditionally accepted term. Attention should be paid to differences in pronunciation. The Kipchak language is characterized by the replacement of y <g. It is because of this characteristic that the Kipchaks should not be correlated with the Cumans. The Codex Cumanicus, which is stored in the library of St. Mark’s Cathedral in Venice, is written precisely in the wet tongue of the Turkic languages. The Kipchak language, undoubtedly, influenced the Bashkir language, but there is one misfortune that it is not known to take the Kipchak language as a basis. Kipchaks always merged with neighboring tribes, adopting their language, customs and ethnonym, as if the Kipchaks were not called a tribe, but a certain group of interests, for example, a religious sect. But what there is no doubt is that the Bashkir and Kipchak languages ​​belong to the Turkic. And yet, in the relatively recent past, the Bashkirs used the Turkic language, also known as the Tatar-Türks, in writing. And, probably, in connection with the term Turkic languages, the origin of the term Turkic should also be considered.

In the Bashkir language, Turk (Turk) is a mixed, general, group, related word turkum – group. And the common or generalized language of the Bashkirs was called Turk (Türks). According to this principle, the word Greek came from the Latin term grex – a mixture, which, in turn, is akin to the word sin. This can only say that turk and grex are descendants of the same peoples, i.e. they can be related people, separated by the difference of religion and the estrangement of the language happened afterwards. It is no coincidence that the Greeks do not differ much from the Turks anthropologically; moreover, the ancient Greek Koine shows general characteristics of both the Greek language and Turkish.

At one time, mixed languages ​​were called differently. For example, ancient Greek – koyne or kayne (boiling, mixing), there was also the language sabir – mixed, pidgin – simplified and many others. common languages, as well as lingua franca, literally “free language”. According to this principle, the Russian language developed, in which, it seems that all words are borrowed, the Bashkirs called a free, simplified language Turk – mixed, common. Written language and must be simplified, understandable to as many categories of people as possible. An interesting fact is that the language of the Bashkir poet and thinker Akmulla, today’s researchers call mixed, consisting of Tatar, Kazakh and Bashkir words. And it never occurred to anyone that this is one of the dialects of the Bashkir language, i.e. one of the tribes could speak that language, before the introduction of modern literary language. The appearance of dialects was probably promoted by a custom called barymty. The Bashkir youth was obliged to raid to distant lands in order to abduct the bride. As a rule, the language of the bride was different from the language of the groom, but the children grew up under the supervision of the mother and, accordingly, some words from her mother tongue fell into the language. And it turned out that the neighboring villages were distinguished by a dialect, not just a dialect, namely a dialect, differences not only in pronunciation, but also in words. And for understanding, a common language is needed, named already in the late Turkic era. The term is found in preserved Chinese chronicles and, for example, in the inscription dedicated to the Bilge Kagan. One should follow the appearance of the Ashin Turks as a separate community, group, as with their appearance, the term Turk begins to appear. In addition, Ashina was the founder of a separate group (Turk), consisting of various tribes. According to the Chinese annals, the “five hundred Ashin families” arose “from a mixture of different genera” living in the western part of Shaanxi, conquered in the IV century. among the Chinese by the Huns and Syanbians. This record confirms that the term Turk could well be used to mean mixed people, like language. It is noteworthy that in the annals themselves the term tukyu is used, which is identified with the Turk by the French orientalist P. Pelliot and then Turkut, supported by later scholars. Meanwhile, tukyu is close in phonetics to the tense verb and can have another direct translation – beat, knead, forge. This corresponds to the occupation of the Ashin Turks: “Asina with five hundred families fled to the Zhuzhans and, settling on the southern side of the Altai Mountains, mined iron for the Zhuzhans. ” Mongolian tribes have relations with Altai. From the annals of Rashid al-Din, it follows that in the Ergune-Khun hollow, the multiplying Mongols became crowded, and they came out from there, melting a steep slope rich in iron ore and making a passage through a mountain range, settled on the expanses of the steppe. At the same time, the Persian historian indicates that the two ancestors of these people were Nukuz, the legendary ancestor of the Turks, who was simultaneously revered by the Turks as “the ancestor of Noah (Turk. Nukh)”, and Kiyan, who was considered the ancestor of the royal family Kiyat-Borjigin, from whom Genghis Khan himself came for the first time uniting all the Türks and Mongols. At the same time, it is not known what sources Rashid ad-Din used. After all, he could have transferred the legend that existed before him to Altai or the Balkans, no difference, i.e. Describe events without reference to the terrain. The term Ergune-Khun in the original is completely written differently – Eregenkun, in which the Turkic Eregyn kun is guessed, in translation Day of Melting, which, if freely interpreted, may take the form of Spring Hill. And these are the Semites with their Tell Aviv. The exodus of the Jews from Egypt corresponds to the flight of the Ashin Turks. It turns out that the scribes of the Bible and the Persian scholar-encyclopedist used the same source. It is worth adding a story from German-Scandinavian myths, where, from the breath of the cow of Audumlu, the ice melted (licked ice blocks), which contributed to the birth of the first person under the name of Storm, Odin’s grandfather. The same plot is traced here as with the Turks: melting and the outcome. For Türks and Jews there is a common ancestor Noah (Nukuz), indicating a community of Jews and Türks, i.e. they belong to the biblical people. From the “Small inscription” it follows: in translation, the Day of Melting, which with a free interpretation may take the form of Spring Hill. And these are the Semites with their Tell Aviv. The exodus of the Jews from Egypt corresponds to the flight of the Ashin Turks. It turns out that the scribes of the Bible and the Persian scholar-encyclopedist used the same source. It is worth adding a story from German-Scandinavian myths, where, from the breath of the cow of Audumlu, the ice melted (licked ice blocks), which contributed to the birth of the first person under the name of Storm, Odin’s grandfather. The same plot is traced here as with the Turks: melting and the outcome. For Türks and Jews there is a common ancestor Noah (Nukuz), indicating a community of Jews and Türks, i.e. they belong to the biblical people. From the “Small inscription” it follows: in translation, the Day of Melting, which with a free interpretation may take the form of Spring Hill. And these are the Semites with their Tell Aviv. The exodus of the Jews from Egypt corresponds to the flight of the Ashin Turks. It turns out that the scribes of the Bible and the Persian scholar-encyclopedist used the same source. It is worth adding a story from German-Scandinavian myths, where, from the breath of the cow of Audumlu, the ice melted (licked ice blocks), which contributed to the birth of the first person under the name of Storm, Odin’s grandfather. The same plot is traced here as with the Turks: melting and the outcome. For Türks and Jews there is a common ancestor Noah (Nukuz), indicating a community of Jews and Türks, i.e. they belong to the biblical people. From the “Small inscription” it follows: The exodus of the Jews from Egypt corresponds to the flight of the Ashin Turks. It turns out that the scribes of the Bible and the Persian scholar-encyclopedist used the same source. It is worth adding a story from German-Scandinavian myths, where, from the breath of the cow of Audumlu, the ice melted (licked ice blocks), which contributed to the birth of the first person under the name of Storm, Odin’s grandfather. The same plot is traced here as with the Turks: melting and the outcome. For Türks and Jews there is a common ancestor Noah (Nukuz), indicating a community of Jews and Türks, i.e. they belong to the biblical people. From the “Small inscription” it follows: The exodus of the Jews from Egypt corresponds to the flight of the Ashin Turks. It turns out that the scribes of the Bible and the Persian scholar-encyclopedist used the same source. It is worth adding a story from German-Scandinavian myths, where, from the breath of the cow of Audumlu, the ice melted (licked ice blocks), which contributed to the birth of the first person under the name of Storm, Odin’s grandfather. The same plot is traced here as with the Turks: melting and the outcome. For Türks and Jews there is a common ancestor Noah (Nukuz), indicating a community of Jews and Türks, i.e. they belong to the biblical people. From the “Small inscription” it follows: which contributed to the birth of the first man under the name of Storm, the grandfather of Odin. The same plot is traced here as with the Turks: melting and the outcome. For Türks and Jews there is a common ancestor Noah (Nukuz), indicating a community of Jews and Türks, i.e. they belong to the biblical people. From the “Small inscription” it follows: which contributed to the birth of the first man under the name of Storm, the grandfather of Odin. The same plot is traced here as with the Turks: melting and the outcome. For Türks and Jews there is a common ancestor Noah (Nukuz), indicating a community of Jews and Türks, i.e. they belong to the biblical people. From the “Small inscription” it follows:

“… Due to the fact that you, the people, are organized like that,
due to the fact that you
didn’t
pay attention to your kagan – you wandered in foreign lands, you exhausted yourself, my Turkic people! …”

The Turks mined iron for the Zhuzhans, who considered themselves to be one tribe with the Tobgachs. Tobgachs are mentioned in the “Small Inscription”, which is part of the funeral complex of Kul-Tegin and his wife. Another name of the Juan people is “Tatars”, also called “Tartar, perhaps this is one of the Haims of Aimnu. At the same time, it is alleged that the Zhughun Khaganate is an early Mongol state, i.e. Jujuans are Mongols and Tatars at the same time. At the same time, the meaning of the term Jujuana – “grovel”, which is comparable in meaning to “be courteous,” is gentleman, gallant. By the way, the gentleman literally “beloved lord”, lover: gent – lord, leman – beloved. There is a correlation between a lover – a man – a phallus. It’s curious that in Chinese, “p” is pronounced close to “w,” it’s a sound, similar to the French pronons, but still closer to the “w”. The same is observed in Persian. And the term Rouen, in Chinese, is heard as Juan, akin to the names John, Juan, Ivan, John, John, Sion (Zion), then Ionians, Yuezhi, Tohara and so on. It means a Ruan lute, a musical instrument. It is generally accepted that the name of the lute comes from the Arabic “al-ud” – wood, wood. However, in the Old Russian language (northern dialect), ud is a phallus, a member (Slo. Dahl). Related is wasp – end (bash.yaz.). And the name of the lute may turn out to be quite a Russian, a figurative comparison. This is because Zhuanzhuang is a reinforced Rouen-Rouen – the main member of the group (Turk). It is noteworthy that the Chinese 软管 (ruǎn guǎn) has the literal meaning “hose” and from it. schlauch (hose) is a gentry. In the Persian language mentioned, the member is kir with all the ensuing consequences: the head, the head is bash, kir is the lord, the phallus, and then Russian is the Bashkir. The term Mongol connects the meaning of Mongo – husband (man with experience). In the Bashkir language, instead of “mongo”, the term ҡart was used, and the word did not mean the old man, as is now customary, but a skilled man, experienced. Close to the value of batyrs. For example, the leader of the Tulkusur rebellion was named Cart, although he was not at all old, moreover, he was a rather young man. Close to the value of batyrs. For example, the leader of the Tulkusur rebellion was named Cart, although he was not at all old, moreover, he was a rather young man. Close to the value of batyrs. For example, the leader of the Tulkusur rebellion was named Cart, although he was not at all old, moreover, he was a rather young man.

However, one should return to the term Jujans, to the part where they considered themselves to be one people from Toba (Tobgachi). The fact is that the toba is translated from the Bashkir language as “whirlpool” and tobgachs are the devils living in this whirlpool. Comparing this term (toba) with another name of Jujuans – tartar, Tatars, where tartar is the abyss, hell, it becomes clear, the proximity of the term reptiles, i.e. snakes, reptiles and other animals, inhabitants of swamps. Legends tell of how a nine-year-old child, from the Western Hun tribe, was thrown into the swamp with his arms and legs severed, but the boy survived and the she-wolf gave birth to ten sons, from whom the clan of the Turks went. There is also the theme of swamps, where, in fact, the Türks came from. It’s worth saying that that the steppes were called Desht-i-kipchak and that dashed (daʃt) – damn, devilish (English); keepsake – a souvenir, a gift that is comparable in meaning to the word ark – chest, casket. And Desht-i-Kipchak is the abode of devils, Tartarus, the pool.

On the “Selenginsky stone”, an epitaph to one of the creators of the Uigur Kaganate, Bilge Kagan, there is a line: “… When the Kypchak Turks ruled us for 50 years …”, indicating that the Turk is a group and should be read “… group Kipchaks .. “. Kipchaks, Toxobids are directly related to Jews. Delov, in the Bashkir language ҡypsaҡ – a bag, sack, box, and is a kindred word for the ark. It probably makes sense to explain more broadly. The name Aron means “the ark of the covenant”, a chest with tablets and corresponds to the name Erich, Eric, Irek, Irik. The name Aaron was carried by the brother of Moses, from whom the clergy – Jews, Coens or Hagans – lead their kind. It is worth comparing with the title kagan among the Turks. Kipchaks, like people of the sack or toxobic, stood at the head of the Khazar Khaganate. It was they who were those Jews who were considered the top rulers, in this case, the clergy, that is, the term Kipchak meant a clergyman, a rabbi. In addition, another name for the Kipchaks is the Tatars.

It may be interesting to know whether the genetic studies confirm the kinship of the Türks and Semites. On the male side, this is the haplogroup R1a (Arabs, Levites, Slavs, and many others) and R1b (Uighurs, Bashkirs, Ashkenazi, etc.). And if someone decides that he is of a special kind or a descendant of aliens, this study will kill him.

The place where all events began, in all respects, the Urals and the Urals region. Indeed, one of the Scythian names of the Urals is Arima (first, unit). In the ethnonym Bashkirs, the basis of bash is preserved – the beginning. In Herodotus, the Bashkirs are called Arimaspas – the All-Seeing Eye, comparable to the name Enkuz, Argus, but the term was translated as “one-eyed” – cyclops (cyclops). By the way, it was they who taught dr. Greek. Hephaestus and Athena crafts. You can find parallels in the name Athena (in the original Әҫinә) and her türks (Tür, Tiu, Ziu) with Ashina and his Türks, which again indicates a common source. To the mythology of dr. In Greece, the theme could be brought in by immigrants from Greco-Bactria, where it could get along with the Yuezhi, closely connected with Central Asia. And Herodotus could well convey the story of Astyages and his grandson Cyrus II (son of his daughter), who was fed by a woman named Spako (Dog). Need to clarify that the Turks, like the Jews, inherited on the maternal side, i.e. for women. This was the reason that Temuchin (Genghis Khan) killed all his maternal relatives, thereby eliminating the candidates for the throne.

In Greek mythology, there is even a plot with eating your own son. Astyages fed Harpaga, who did not follow the order properly, of his own son. In other Greek. the version of the child they ate is Dionysus. It is noteworthy that the slave of Harpag, whom he ordered to kill the child, was called Mithridates, but the name Miθradāta means “mythical character”, an imaginary image. If we attach this motive to the Bashkirs, then Mithridates is closest in semantics to the afflictions, the descendants of Muyten. In the Bashkir language, “my” is an imaginary image and literally literally “from myths”. And then the usergans took up the boy’s upbringing and this is a kind of storm (wolf). The ethnonym Bashkort is led to the wolf, where the court (kurt) is the wolf, which can be a confirmation of where it all began. With a similar phonetics of the name, there was another biblical hero – Moses (Moisha, Musa), was saved in a similar way, thrown into the water in a basket. And they brought him up in the family of the pharaoh. The plot with the extermination of the family, when only one boy remains alive, is present in the epic “Babsak and Kusәk”. The struggle of two Bashkir tribes is described: Burzyans and Kipsak.

شەرقىي ياۋروئاسىيادىكى كۆچمەنلەرنىڭ 6000 يىللىق ھەرىكەتچان گېن تارىخى

بۇ ماقالە 2020-يىلى 26-مارتتا ئېلان قىلىنغان بولۇپ تەتقىقاتقا ئامېركا، گېرمانىيە، جوڭگو، كورىيە، موڭغۇلىيە، روسىيە، ئەنگىلىيەدىكى داڭلىق تەتقىقاتچىلار قاتناشقان، ماقالە تېمىسى بولسا

A dynamic 6,000-year genetic history of Eurasia’s Eastern Steppe 

ئەۋرىشكىلەر ئېلىنغان ئورۇن

رەسىمدە كۆرسىتىلگەندەك ئەۋرىشكىلەر ئېلىنغان ئورۇن بولسا جوڭگونىڭ شىمالى ۋە موڭغۇلىيە تۇپراقلىرى.

ۋاقىت ئوقى

ۋاقىت تەرتىپى بويىچە مۇشۇ تۇپراقدا مەۋجۇت بولۇپ ئۆتكەن تارىخلار بولسا ئەڭ دەسلەپتە مىس قوراللاردىن بۇرۇنقى مەزگىل(مىلادىدىن بۇرۇنقى 5000يىلدىن مىلادىدىن بۇرۇنقى 3500-يىلغىچە)، ئاندىن ئافاناسىۋودەۋرى(تەخمىنەن مىلادىدىن بۇرۇنقى 3000-يىللىرى) ئاندىن چۈمۈرچەك دەۋرى(تەخمىنەن مىلادىدىن بۇرۇنقى 2500-يىللىرى)، ئاندىن مونخارىخان دەۋرى (تەخمىنەن مىلادىدىن بۇرۇنقى 1400-1900يىللىرى)، ئۇلانزۇخ دەۋرى(تەخمىنەن مىلادىدىن بۇرۇنقى 1000-1500يىللىرى) ،بۇغا تاش خىرىگسۇر دەۋرى(تەخمىنەن مىلادىدىن بۇرۇنقى 900-1400يىللىرى)، تاختاي قەبرىسى دەۋرى(تەخمىنەن مىلادىدىن بۇرۇنقى 400-1000يىللىرى)، ئۇيۇق دەۋرى(تەخمىنەن مىلادىدىن بۇرۇنقى 150-500يىللىرى)، ھونلار دەۋرى(تەخمىنەن مىلادىدىن بۇرۇنقى 150-يىلىدىن مىلادىدىن كېينكى 150-يىلغىچە)، سىيانپىلار دەۋرى(تەخمىنەن مىلادىدىن كېيىنكى 150 تىن 450-يىلغىچە)، تۈركلەر دەۋرى(تەخمىنەن مىلادىدىن كېيىنكى 500 تىن 750-يىلغىچە)، ئۇيغۇر دەۋرى(تەخمىنەن مىلادىدىن كېيىنكى 750 تىن 950-يىلغىچە)، قىتان دەۋرى(تەخمىنەن مىلادىدىن كېيىنكى 950 تىن 1100-يىلغىچە) ۋە موڭغۇل دەۋرى(تەخمىنەن مىلادىدىن كېيىنكى 1100 تىن 1500-يىلغىچە) 

نەتىجە تۆۋەندىكىدەك

نەتىجىنى چۈشىنىشتىن ئىلگىرى بۇ رەڭ ۋە سۆزلەرنىڭ  مەنىسىنى چۈشىنىپ چىقايلى

1a

مىس  قوراللار دەۋرىدىن ئىلگىركى ۋە دەسلەپكى مىس قوراللار دەۋرى 

ئوتتۇرا ۋە كېيىنكى مىس قوراللار دەۋرى

دەسلەپكى تۆمۈر قوراللار دەۋرى

ھونلار دەۋرى

 ئوتتۇرا ئەسىرنىڭ دەسلەپكى دەۋرى يەنى تۈرك ۋە ئۇيغۇر دەۋرى. بۇ رەسىمدىن كۆرىۋېلىشقا بولىدىغان ئۇچۇر بولسا قەدىمقى ئۇيغۇرلار ۋە تۈركلەرنىڭ قايسى ئېرىققا تەۋە ياكى قايسى ئېرىقتىكىلەرنىڭ يېغىندىسى بولغانلىقى. رەسىمدە ئېنىق تۇرغاندەك تۈركلەرنىڭ دى ئېن ئاسىنىڭ ئوخشاشلىقى  ئاساسلىقى قەدىمقى شەرقى شىمالى ئاسىيالىقلار بىلەن ئوخشاش. قىسمەن خەنلەر، كوۋسگوللارنى ۋە سارماشىيانلار ئۆز ئىچىگە ئالغان. ئەمما ئۇيغۇرلار بولسا قەدىمقى شەرقى شىمالى ئاسىيالىقلاردىن باشقا باكتىرىيە-مارجىنالىقلار  ۋە ئالانلارنى ئاساسلىق ئېرىقى تەركىپ قىلغان.    

ئوتتۇرا ئەسىرنىڭ كېينكى دەۋرىدىكى موڭغۇل ۋە قىتانلارنىڭ ئېرىق تەركىبى بولسا تۈركلەرگە ئوخشاشلا قەدىمقى شەرقى شىمالى ئاسىيالىقلار بىلەن خەنلەرنى ۋە قىسمەن ئالانلارنى ئاساسلىق ئېرىقى تەركىب قىلغان.  

ئۇنداقتا قەدىمقى ئۇيغۇرلارنىڭ ئاساسلىق ئېرىقى تەركىبىنى تۈزىۋاتقانلار ئالانلار، باكتىرىيەلىكلەر، سارماشىيانلار كىملەر؟

ئالانلار  بولسا قەدىمكى دەۋردىكى ئىرانلىق كۆچمەن چارۋىچىلار بولۇپ ئۇلار يەنە ئارىيانلار دەپ ئاتىلىدۇ.يەنى بۇ ئېرىق ياۋروپا ئېرىقىغا تەۋە ئېرىقتۇر.

باكتىرىيەلىكلەر بولسا پامىر تاغلىرىدا ياشايدىغانلارنى كۆرسىتىدىغان بولۇپ بۇلار يەنىلا ياۋروپا ئېرىقىغا تەۋە بولۇپ بۇلار گىرىكلار بىلەن ئوخشاپ كېتىدۇ

سارماشىيانلار بولسا مىلادىدىن ئىلگىرىكى 5-ئەسىردىن مىلادىيە 4-ئەسىرگىچە گۈللەنگەن ئىرانى قەبىلىلەرنىڭ بىرلەشمىسى. 

يېغىنچاقلاپ ئېيتقاندا قەدىمقى تۈركلەر بىلەن قەدىمقى ئۇيغۇرلارنىڭ پەرقى بولسا، تۈركلەردە سارماشىيانلارنىڭ ئېرىقى تەركىبى كۆپ، ئۇيغۇرلاردا بولسا ئارىيانلارنىڭ ئېرىقى تەركىبى كۆپ.

ئەسكەرتىشكە تىگىشلىكى شۇكى سارماشىيانلار ئۇيغۇر دەۋرىگە كەلگەندە يوقاپ ئارىيانلار تەركىبى كۈچلىنىپ كەتكەن. سوئال شارماشىينالار نەگە  كەتتى؟ ئۇنىڭدىن باشقا ئوتتۇرا شەرق ئېرىقىدىكىلەر قاچان ئۇيغۇرلارغا قوشۇلدى؟ ئارىيان ۋە سارماشىيان قەبىلىلەرنىڭ بىرلەشمىلىرى ئەمەلىيەتتە ئوتتۇرا شەرىق ۋە ياۋوپا ئېرىقىدىكىلەرنىڭ يېغىندىسى بولىشى مۇمكىنمۇ؟ بۇ ھەقتىكى سوئاللارنىڭ جاۋابى بەلكىم كەلگۈسىدىكى تەتقىقات نەتىجىلىرىدە ئايدىڭ بولىدۇ.