Artux, Atush or Atushi is situated in the northwest part of the Tarim Basin, south of the Tien Shan mountains.before the invasion of Turkic tribes in 9th century, they were using Tat language which is also mentioned in the Dīwān Lughāt al-Turk.
Then what is Tat language?
The Tat language or Tat/Tati Persian or Tati (Tat: zuhun tati) is a Southwestern Iranian language related to, but mutually unintelligible with Persian and spoken by the Tats. Its written form is related to Middle Persian Pahlavi. There is also an Iranian language called Judeo-Tat spoken by Jews of Caucasus.
Who are the Tats and where were they came from?
The Tats are an indigenous Iranian people in the Caucasus who trace their origin to the Sassanid-period migrants from Iran (ca. fifth century AD) .
same story could happen to Artux Tats. their ancestors were also came from Iran based on other related history of Sogdiana.
تات- پۈتۈن تۈركلەرنىڭ نەزىرىدە، پارىسچە سۆزلەيدىغان كىشى.
تات- تۇخسى، ياغمىلارنىڭ نەزىرىدە مۇسۇلمان بولمىغان ئۇيغۇرلار، مەن بۇنى ئۇلارنىڭ ئۆز يۇرتلىرىدا ئاڭلىدىم، «تات تاۋغاچ» دەيدىكەن. بۇ «ئۇيغۇر ۋە چىنلىق» دىگەن بولىدۇ. ئۇلار ۋاپاسىز كېلىدۇ … تاتسىز تۈرك بولماس، باشسىز بۆك بولماس
.2 – قىسىم 409 – 410 – بەت
In the Dīwān Lughāt al-Turk we can read some related information: It says: there is no Turks without Tats, there is no head without hat(Doppah or Kippah). which means Turks and Tats were allied with each other and people of that area assimilated by Tats culturally, every person had to wear hat on their head.
In 539 BC Babylon is fallen. it was conquered by the Persian king Cyrus.the first Jewish settlement here appears in Balkh. over the next few centuries, Balkh became the largest center of Jewish communities in central Asia. gradually, the Jews began to settle and other major centers of the region. soon Jewish settlements appear in Sogd. they spoke Pahlavi, is the official language of the Sassanids, a dialect of the ancient language, Sugd. later in Bukhara it was created Novoiransky language- Dari and they quickly mastered it, but kept the elements Pahlavi. therefore, their language is a mixture of ancient Iranian language of the Achaemenids, Pahlavi and Dari, with elements of Turkish language. he became the foundation of modern Tajik language.
later Sogdians were also known as Bukharian. Jews from Bukhara are known as Bukharian Jews.
These Sogdians or Tats or Bukharians espacially Artux Tats were precursors of Karakhanids. Hazrat Sultan Satuq Bughra Khan Ghazi was one of the first rulers to convert to Islam, which prompted his Kara-Khanid subjects to convert.Satuq was said to have come from Artush, identified in the 10th century book Hudud al-‘alam (The Limits of the World) as a “populous village of the Yaghma”, the Yaghma being one of the tribes that formed the Karakhanids.
A new group of Jews arrived in Bukhara on the initiative of Timur. The rising of Timur was a symbol of the rising of Sogdians or tats or Bukharians or specifically jews.