The defeat of the Khazars and other wars of Svyatoslav the Brave
Shambarov Valery Evgenievich
The Jews. Exodus to Khazaria
Arabs in the eighth century. completed the conquest of Central Asia. Their success was promoted by the relentless feud between the local Turkic tribes. And Chinese diplomacy also set them against each other. These tribes wereted in feuds, and the Arabs defeated them. They also defeated the Chinese in the battle of Talas. And they became masters of the whole region. But many problems were brought to the conquerors by the uprisings of the cities of Sogdiana, initiated by the Mazdakites and similar revolutionaries. The supporter was sent to the commander Nasr ibn-Sayyar with the troops recruited in Persia. He had a very hard time. Only managed to pacify the rebellion in one place, as has already inflamed in another. The city was required to take siege and assault, to bear heavy losses.
True, the task of the conquerors was facilitated by the revolutionaries themselves. Having rebelled this or that city, they began to carry out their “social reforms”. Which caused discontent of the population and the split of anti-Arab forces. And as a result, Central Asia managed to conquer. More precisely – crush. The pacification was the cruelest. The “Merry Sogdiana” was destroyed, the ruins of cities and villages with piles of corpses, mountains of severed heads, forests of stakes and gallows remained from it. And crowds of Sogdian women and children who were turned into slaves overwhelmed all the slave markets, so that prices for live goods fell all-time low. Such a product did not pay for its content. And the Arab commanders paid off with their Persian warriors by the same gratis women and children. And land in a devastated country.
But in the Caucasus, sensitive attacks again fell on the Arab possessions. In the 750s. there was an invasion of “Sevordik”, as the Armenian chronicles call them, and the Arab – “savardzhi”. Under this name it is not difficult to recognize the northerners. Obviously, they decided to avenge the hijacking and extermination of their fellow tribesmen during the invasion of Mervan. Their army took and destroyed the city of Shamkhor, devastated the environs of Ganja.
The Khazar Khaganate also recovered from the defeat suffered. In 754, the governor of Transcaucasia, Yasid bin Usaid al-Sulam, tried to remind the Khazars that they promised to convert to Islam and recognized their dependence on the caliph. The northern neighbors remained deaf to his appeals. Then he decided to repeat the raid of Mervan. But he couldn’t go north further, he was stopped right behind the Darial Gorge. Fights proceeded with varying success. Yasid realized that he could not conquer the Khazars. And if so, it is more important to ensure the security of their own possessions. And peace was concluded – this time on an equal footing. The contract was sealed by marriage between Yasid and the daughter of the kagan.
However, this world has not become durable. Taking advantage of the fact that the Arab threat was eliminated, the Khazars regained their domination in the North Caucasus – subjugated Alanya, Lakia, Khamzin. Thus, they again blocked the road to their country through the Caucasus range. And they opened their way to raids. And they went to the invasion. The Khazars attacked Georgia, seized and ravaged Tbilisi, smashed Armenia. True, these raids had the opposite side. It was not the Arabs who got any more, but the Georgians, the Armenians, the Albanians. The forces of these peoples were undermined; they could no longer fight the invaders. On the contrary, they should have come closer to the Arabs to defend against invasions. These invasions led to a change in the appearance of Agvania, formerly Christian and Armenian-speaking. Local residents died, were hijacked. Or converted to Islam in order to get more reliable protection of the caliphate. And in the devastated areas of power Muslims moved from Iran. And the ethnic group of Azerbaijanis began to take shape.
Khazaria remained the most necessary ally for Byzantium. To strengthen this alliance, Lev III even married his son and heir Konstantin to the Khazar princess Chichak. But iconoclasm remained the basis of the internal policy of Constantinople. By the way, Leo issued a decree on the universal baptism of Jews. Probably, his plans included the merging of “altered” Christianity with Judaism. But from this, of course, nothing came of it. Some of the Jews were baptized for the sake of appearances, others ignored the decree – subsequent events show that the Jewish communities in Byzantium survived.
However, iconoclasm under Leo was still conducted on a limited scale. 30 clerics were executed, trying to defend the veneration of icons, a number of hierarchs were removed from their posts and sent to exile. Icons were destroyed in several metropolitan churches. But in the provinces iconoclastic edicts, as a rule, were not executed. And Leo, apparently, did not dare to suppress Orthodoxy by force. Where his son, Konstantin V Kopronim, took a steeper turn. “Copro” is “shit” in Greek. The legend says that at baptism, when he was immersed in the font, the prince did it and thus gave himself a name. And “justified” him.
True, in the first 10 years of his rule, he did not take decisive action against Orthodoxy. Because he waged war with the Arabs and was afraid to undermine his rear. But he led a systematic “cleansing” of the leadership of the Church, replacing the “icon-readers” with his proteges. Having won a number of victories, he concluded a profitable world with the caliphate. And in 754, he convened a council proclaimed “ecumenical”, which condemned and cursed the veneration of icons. And away we go. Patriarch Constantine was deposed and exiled to Fr. Prikipo. The barbaric actions of the destruction of icons, frescoes, and mosaics rolled around – they were replaced in churches with paintings of secular content. It was forbidden to venerate the holy relics. They were burned, thrown into the sea. The decay of the capital’s mob and the army, infected by heresies, became the support of Constantine in these outrages.
Yes, and Constantine was popular among the soldiers as a successful commander. Zimirivshis with the Arabs, he threw the army against the Bulgarians. Despite the fact that they helped Byzantium in the wars with the Caliphate. But for this help, you had to pay tribute, and indeed the neighborhood of a strong Bulgaria called corns to Romes. And Copronym decided to crush her. However, here he was stuck for a long time, and the Byzantines suffered defeats. In addition, the Slavs rebelled within the empire. Constantine managed to suppress them and deported 200 thousand people to Bithynia. With only increased discontent, the Byzantine Slavs began to pass into the citizenship of Bulgaria and put up a 20-thousand army that fought on its side.
Despite these difficulties, Copronym intensified the persecutions of Orthodoxy. If unwanted bishops and priests could be changed, intimidated, bought, then there remained a powerful opposition in the face of monasticism. And the emperor dealt a crushing blow at him, comparable to the persecutions of the era of pagan Rome. In 761–765 all the monasteries around Constantinople were defeated. Monks killed, tortured. One of the sources mentions 340 monks in the capital’s dungeon Fiala – without eyes, noses, ears, with severed arms and legs. He accepted the martyrdom of St. Stefan: he was beaten and abused, then, tied to a horse, dragged along the streets until he died. Patriarch Constantine was pulled out of exile. During the circus performance, they drove around the hippodrome in clown clothes, putting it on the donkey backwards. And the black spat at him, throwing mud.
The culmination of the excesses in the capital was a spectacle at the hippodrome in August 765. The monks were joined in pairs with the nuns and led in a shameful procession. The spectators spat them, beat them, threw stones. The emperor shouted that the monks did not give him peace, and the people yelled back: “This brat no longer exists.” In 766 the emperor sent out his emissaries with punitive expeditions to the provinces. And, for example, in the Thracian theme, patrician Michael Lakhondrakon drove all the monks and nuns to Ephesus, declaring to them: “Whoever does not want to be disobedient to the royal will, let him take off his dark robe and immediately take his wife, otherwise he will be blinded and exiled to Cyprus “. Someone resigned, many did not, were mutilated and died.
Monasteries were destroyed. Church and monastic property confiscated. Temples turned into barracks, warehouses, stables. Severe punishments fell upon those who hid these or other shrines. Even references to icons and relics were pulled out and scraped from books. But the confiscation of church property helped Copronym to wage war with Bulgaria. She suffered a series of defeats. She was exhausted by many years of fighting and fights. And in 768 requested peace. Terms dictated Constantine.
But he did not succeed in finally breaking the Bulgarians. And in 773 a new war broke out, in which the Greeks again won. Moreover, the chronicles noted that Copronyme carried out this campaign with his fleet and a squadron of “Russian ships”. As you can see, the Russians have already mastered navigation. And they remained allies of the Byzantine-Khazar coalition.
However, in the second half of the eighth century. The appearance of the Khazar Kaganate began to change. He was a multinational state, famous for his tolerance, here Sky-Tengri worshipers, Orthodox, Monophysites peacefully lived together. And the Jews too. They appeared in the Crimea and on Taman after the defeat of the Judeans by the Romans. Then refugees from Persia were added during the Mazdakit revolution. And then fleeing from the Arabs. Thus, in 690, an uprising against the caliphate occurred in Iran. It was cruelly crushed. Joseph ben Yehoshua Ha-Kogen reports: “And it was in the summer of 4450 (690), and the struggle between the Ishmaelites and the Persians intensified at that time, and the Persians were struck by them, and they fell under their feet, and numerous Jews fled from Paras , like a sword, and they moved from tribe to tribe,
Refugees from the Caucasus and Central Asia were added. Gradually, large Jewish colonies formed in Dagestan and north of Terek — the Arabs broke into these lands several times since 654, and the areas devastated by their invasions “freed” for the settlers. They lived with local peoples. Together with them they defended their lands against the new attacks of the Arabs. Over time, lost many Jewish customs. Only the Torah (the Old Testament) was revered by the holy book, and the Talmud was not followed the instructions – that is, like the Crimean Jews, they became Karaites. As the “Cambridge anonym” reports: “And they intermarried with the inhabitants of that country and learned their deeds. And they always went out with them to the war and became one with them. Only the covenant of circumcision they kept, and some of them kept the Sabbath. “
But along the streamlined road, to the tribesmen, it was easier to move to the next Jewish emigrants. Through their colonies, large Jewish merchants of Western Europe and Byzantium began to establish contacts with the Khazaria. This became especially relevant after the defeat of Sogdiana. After all, before the caravan trade through Central Asia and the transit of silk from China were held by Sogdian merchants. Now they were killed or ruined, their cities lay in ruins. And Jewish entrepreneurs tried to intercept such a profitable business. They laid a new Silk Road north of the Caspian Sea through the city of Itil. But not only the Silk Road passed through here. From ancient times through the Oka and Volga, led the Amber Way – from the Baltic to the countries of the East! And if you follow to the north, you could get into Biarmia – the Great Perm, the country of furs. And Itil was at the crossroads of these three roads!
A huge global trading network began to take shape, in which the leading role belonged to Jewish rakhdonite merchants (the word Iranian, it means “knowing the way”). These merchants became scouts penetrating distant lands. They were diplomats, negotiating with local rulers. And the organizers, founding representative offices in foreign lands, and representative offices, and on the roads – caravanserais and transshipment bases. And Chinese goods flowed to the West all the way to Provence and Spain. The fruits of international trade and enjoyed the inhabitants of Eastern Europe. During the excavations in the city of Bulgar on the Kama, Chinese mirrors are found. And from the Russian legends and “The Word of Igor’s Regiment” we know about the “sword of the servile” – this name came from high-grade bulat made by Karluk people who lived near Balkhash and the Irtysh and were famous for their metallurgy.
In general, it became quite natural for Jewish traders to move to Khazaria not only as immigrants, but also in business interests. People are literate, with a high ancient culture, they are useful to local rulers. Because the Khazar Khaganate was a military power, its top was Turkic nobility with its squads. And the “civil” functions in their state were often transferred by the Turks to foreigners. In the Turkic Kaganate a similar role was played by Sogdy. In the Khazar, Jews took their place, they became officials, advisers, diplomats, financiers of the Hagan. But there was a difference. Sogdian merchants were interested in their own wallet and the prosperity of Sogdiana. The Jews did not have their own country. And they began to do “their” Khazaria, strengthening in it the position of Judaism.
Legends are called the first convert of Prince Bulan, who won some victories over the Arabs. The dating of this event varies in the range from 720s to 760s. The origin of the Bulan is also unclear. Some authors consider him the leader of the Karaites. Others are a Turkic prince born of a Jewish mother. There are different versions of his appeal. One outlined the Khazar king Joseph. Allegedly Bulan expelled from the country “diviners and idolaters” and turned to the true God, after which he had a vision of an angel through which he received the blessing of his deeds. He told about the vision of “his princes and slaves and all the people, they approved it and adopted a new faith.” After that, Bulan in prayers began to complain about his poverty, which is why he cannot build a worthy temple. And God “blessed him for the robbery of the neighboring nations and promised to put into the hearts of them the fear and horror of the Khazars and give them to the hand of the Khazar king.” A Christian and Muslim sages who tried to persuade Bulan to their faith, the Jewish rabbi won in the course of a dispute.
Another version was given to the Arab writer Al-Bekri with reference to Masoudi and the memoirs of the Jewish merchant Ibn Yakub. It says that Bulan first converted to Christianity, but he did not like this faith, and he convened preachers of different religions to find out “who has the truth.” One of his Jewish advisers, “deft in arguments,” managed to win the dispute with the Christian bishop, and sent a spy to the Muslim scholar and poisoned him. In any case, the legends are not accurate and combined the beginning of the process with its completion. Bulan was not a kagan, but only a prince (he bore the title “Bek” or “Sad”), and he could not make Judaism the state religion. And if he had expelled the soothsayers and idolaters, who would have remained in the army?
The real implementation of Judaism in Khazaria was gradual. Step by step, the levers of the state were concentrated in the hands of the Jewish merchant community: tax collection, finance, trade, diplomacy. Synagogues were built in the Khazar cities, and the Jewish educational system was introduced. Probably, the merchants lent the Turkic top money after the invasion of Mervan – to restore the army and the economy. We financed the construction of a new capital on the Volga, receiving new benefits and privileges for it. And the state itself was modified. From a militarized structure that lived at the expense of subsistence farming, steppe pastures and trophy mining, Khazaria turned into a major trading power. Rich at the expense of trade duties, and fell to the rulers. But at the same time the role of the Jewish elite grew. She got the opportunity to nominate her henchmen to key posts,
Nowadays, in the West, the theory is widely propagated that modern Jews are not Jews at all, but descendants of Khazars who converted to Judaism. And note that this theory is spread by the Jews themselves and Masonic authors. The meaning of the fraud is clear. “To be related” is not with the Semitic, but with the Aryan and Turkic roots. And dissociate themselves from those Jews who crucified Christ and themselves pronounced a curse on their kind: “His blood is on us and on our children.” So it is stated: those Jews are no more, they were interrupted by the Romans. And the current descend from the heroes of the Khazars, who defended Europe from the Arabs. Such theories have nothing to do with the truth. Because the main feature of the Jewish ethnos is that it never in any country mixes with the indigenous people. Only due to this, the Jews for more than 2.5 thousand years (from the “Babylonian captivity”) can exist in the diaspora, not dissolving in other nations. But because of this peculiarity, they always remain an alien body in the systems of any people and state.
The introduction of Judaism in Khazaria did not go by missionary, but by genetic means. Pagans Turks and Khazars were polygamists. And in the harems of their nobility sent beautiful Jews. Children inherited from them the high position of fathers. But according to Jewish law, they were born from Jews, were considered full-fledged Jews. It was they (and not the Khazars and the Turks) who received a Jewish education. The merchant community supported their promotion in the state hierarchy. And they got advantages over non-Jewish people.
True, the custom of conversion to Judaism of domestic slaves is also known, as was the direct indication to Abraham contained in the Old Testament (Gen. 13). But in fact, this was forgotten in antiquity and was hardly practiced, since the Jewish slaves were supposed to be freed after 7 years, and, moreover, to provide them with everything necessary for maintaining an independent economy. In the Early Middle Ages in Western Europe there were cases of the conversion of slaves to Judaism, to which the French and German monks complained to the Pope. However, purely mocking purposes were pursued here – to outrage the religion of Christian slaves and make them apostates. None of these “neophytes” Jews did not consider, and they both were, and remained just slaves.
Finally, in exceptional cases, the “appeal” of an important person needed by the merchant community was practiced. She was courted, processed, explained their religion. When a person agrees to be circumcised and call himself a Jew, he was defiantly treated as “his own.” Although it was a fiction, every Jew understood that such a neophyte was actually a “goy.” But the “appeal”, naturally, was complemented by a marriage to a Jewish woman. And the children were already fine. According to Jewish law, the father’s nationality does not matter.